HMA/KCh/Tib/ 01

Date: Wood Dragon (1904)
Lines: 5
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Confirmation that Künzang Chöling should pay an annual cumāni tax of 10 rupees.

Transliteration
1. § shing ’brug zla pa 5 pa’i tshes gsuṃs la | phyisu (phyis su) rtsu ma ṇi byang dgos kyi ra shi bkrad don la | don skres ’di lo – – – 1 brgyal khab
2. chen po’i rtsu sma ṇi bdu mi sleb sten dkor | sngon ’khyun star | chos sde dgo gsuṃ la dngul brgya phogs pa la | dngul lnga bcu | rdzar chos sde
3. rdzong chos sde | dgar dgon | tshul dgon dang | skag chos sde dngul lnga bcu byang dgos la | sting ris dgon | stang yed dgon | dgon
4. pa dgang gsuṃs the dgos nas  | dgon ba gang la phogs tho sngon khyun star dngul bcu’ ’byung pa’i pha rag dang | slar phyisu (phyis su) yang sde star
5. dgong bsal star dngul bcu byang dgos pa’i dbra shid slo smad | dpon ’bang lhyad (lhan rgyad) nas snang pa dge  (seal) |

Emendations
1. tshes gsum; cumāni sbyong; rāji sprod don; dontre (SMT < don snying) ’di; rgyal khab 2. cumāni sdud mi; rten skor; khyun (SMT< rgyun) ltar; sgo gsum; phog pa 3. sbyong dgos 4. ’thad dgos; phog tho; sngon khyun (SMT < rgyun) ltar; bcu byung ba’i pharid [patra]; yang de ltar 5. gong gsal ltar; pa’i rāji; ’bangs lhan rgyas nas gnang.

Translation
Wood Dragon year, 5th month, 3rd day. A document concerning the obligation to pay the cumāni tax. Concerning the arrival of the person who collects the cumāni of the great nation for a period of one year. As in the past, the three monasteries are [together] liable to pay 100 rupees. 50 rupees should be paid collectively by Dzar chos sde, Dzong chos sde, Gar Gön and Tshultrim Gönpa; and Kag chos sde shall pay 50 rupees together with Tiri convent, Taye convent and Gönpa Gang. In accordance with past obligations, and as it is clearly set out in the government document (pharid patra) as well as above, Gönpa Gang shall pay 10 rupees, and the present document [to this effect] has been issued jointly by the lord and subjects of Lower Lo.

Notes
Line 2, dgo gsum (< sgo gsum?): sgo in this case seems to denote a tax unit.
Line 3, dgar dgon: the convent of Gar Gön serves the communities of Dzong, Putrak, Purang and Chongkhor. It is located near the latter community.
Line 3, tshul dgon: Tshultrim Gönpa, a convent in Dzar that is the principal—literally “mother”—nunnery (ma dgon) of the nuns who serve the temple in Muktinath. 

Commentary
For a discussion of the category of tax specified here as rtsu ma ṇi (Nep. cumāni), see the commentary to document KCh/37 below.

We can conclude from this document that the monasteries (chos sde) and convents of Baragaon were organised into two main groups with equal financial liabilities. The two chos sde of the Muktinath Valley, Dzar and Dzong, formed a unit with two convents:  Gar Gönpa, which recruits nuns from the villages of Dzong, Putrak, Purang and the priestly community of Chongkhor, near which it is located; and Tshultrim gönpa, located in Dzar, which is the “mother monastery” (ma dgon) of the nuns who serve at the Buddhist temples of Muktinath itself. Kag Chöde was grouped with three nunneries to the north of it: Tiri, Taye, and Künzang Chöling itself. It is likely that each of the nunneries in this group paid an annual tax of 10 rupees, and that the monastery paid 20 rupees.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 02

Date: Earth Sheep year (1919 [Sch])
Lines: 11
Script: ’khyug

Summary
A list of property in a religious building that is the shared responsibility of four of the five Shöyul communities. It is not certain that the building in question is Gönpa Gang.


Transliteration

1. § sa mo lugs lo zla pa 11 pa’i tshes 20 res za 6 (?)
2. chos bdung 3 | lnga rol mo dang sil snyan [1-2S] long mo ches pad cha 2S | chos 3 | ’=us 1S | gzang dung 1 | [1-2S] sdor 2 snga | rdoer (rdo rje) 4 | bril bu chags po 2
3. me long 1 | thod pa 4 | ’gre ra che ba 2 BRONZE BOWL/ tha ling che cung drugs PLATES | mkhal mo 1 | bha krugs 1 | bdun tsar che chung lnga tsar 5 [3S] man ḍal 2 |g.yu 4 |
4. spo shel 2 | mu men 1 | bu ru 1 | mu stigs =yang ’dzin 1 | yang kyer bka’ gsuṃ ’bra 1 ?? | gsang por 1 | bga’ lto ra ches chung gsum
5. bdun tsar chung pa cha 2 | bdun tsar [yang] kyer | gzang dang rags spa ldeb sdom pa’i spa ldeb 10 | rnam rgyal bum pa chags po 1 | bskang gsuṃ pa 3 | mkhaṃ =i 1S
6. (line illegible due to damage)
7. [±10S] lags chags po 4 | [2S] | =us bkyogs 1 | ang ’khugs chags po 8 | ko lder 3 | shing bder 5 | tsha spar chags ma 11  | tsha spar ga 1= |
8. rin chen da’ ru 1 | lis spa ldeb 1 | zang gi spa ldebs che chung sdoṃ pa’i 7 | ang khugs che chung 17 | ’tor zhong 2 | 1S ling chab gter 5 | mar med dbang khu 19 | 1S
9. kyogs 1 | lcags bskyed chags po thes pa’i lcags bskyed che chung 4 | thol cags 5 | bla nga 1 | ltabs kyas che chung 2 | tshogs zang che pa 1 | bzang skyogs 2 | khri chags po 1 | za nga
10. zo ba 15 pa 1 | zo pa rgyad pa 2 | zang che chung 2 | dza khog 2 | [3S] rags za ches chung 3 | rag zang gnying pa 4 | ’ga’ res ches chung 2 | buṃ pa 1 |
11. [1-2S] kyang gnya’ ’ogs sdoṃ pa’i bdun tsar {2S} cha yod 2 tsis nen pa’i rtags su rted rgan pa nor bu’i rtags X tshags gan man snoṃd (sod naṃs) bsaṃ ggrugs kyi rtags X rgya kha

12. rgis gan rdo rje rtags X gtsang li ’gan tshes dbang bkris (bkra shis) rtags X yigs bris gaga phuon^gs (phun tshogs) dbang bdud kyis phyags rtags X

 

List

Friday, the 20th day of the 11th month in an Earth Sheep year.
Conches – 3
Cymbals – 5 pairs
Books – (lacuna)
Copper horn – 1
Vajras – 4
Cracked bells – 2
Mirror – 1
Skulls – 4
Large bronze bowls – 2
Plates of various size – 6
Bellows – 2
Beer bowl – 1
Water offering bowls of different sizes – 5
Mandalas – 2
Turquoises – 4
Amber pieces – 2
Mumen (like jet) 1
Coral – 1
Pearl – 1
Censer – 1
Bronze or copper torma-making bowls of different size – 3
Small water bowls – 2 pairs
Copper and bronze saucers – 10
Cracked victory vase – 1
Tripod – 3
Cracked butter lamps – 8
Leather plates – 3
Wooden trenchers – 5
Cracked tsha tsha moulds  – 11
Good tsha tsha mould – 1
Ritual laminate of precious metals – 1
Bronze saucer – 1
Copper saucers of varying size – 7
Butter lamps of varying size – 17
Wooden torma trough – 2
(Lacuna) treasure – 5
Butter lamps – 19
Ladle – 1
Cooking tripods, of which one broken – 4
Ploughshares – 5
Iron roasting pan – 1
Teapots, large and small – 2
Large copper vessel for consecrated food – 1
Copper ladles – 2
Broken bed (or throne) – 1
15-zo ba copper vessel – 1
8-zo ba copper vessel – 1
Copper vessels of varying size 2
Copper ewers – 2
Brass and copper (lacuna) of varying size – 3
Old brass and copper vessels – 4
Wooden beer flasks, large and small – 2
Vase – 1
Water offering bowls from the upper and lower floors – 2 pairs

The marks of those who are taking responsibility for these items: the headman of Te, Norbu (cross); the headman of Tshug, Man Sonam Samdrub (cross); the headman of Gyakha, Dorje (cross); the headman of Tsele, Tshewang Trashi (cross); the nobleman Phuntshog Wangdü, who acted as scribe, places his mark (cross).

Commentary
Since the document does not explicitly say so, we cannot be sure that the items in the list belong to Künzang Chöling. If they do, it may be significant that the curatorship of the property is assigned to the headmen of the lay communities associated with the convent rather than to the caretaker nuns (do dam). Tentatively, we may speculate that the convent was going through one of its periodic crises, and that its property was temporarily placed in the charge of the lay authorities of the four Shod yul. Unfortunately, the archive contains no other documents from 1919 that might provide a clue as to the state of the convent’s affairs at this time.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 03

Date: none given
Lines: 23
Script: tshugs

Summary
An undated list of the ceremonies performed in the annual cycle of Künzang Chöling. Most of the events are described as cho ga (rituals) or prayers (smon lam).  Two other categories of rituals that are named are sku rim and zhabs brtan.

Transliteration
1. § byor chags bskor nas | hor zla dang po la | byin bdag yul pa phye= | jo mo bde chen chos brol phyed | mcho ga yin | § tshes

2. bzhi la | jo mo nga dbang chos mdzom gyis smon laṃ yin | § tshes lnga la rigs ’dzin dpal rtsang dang bkra shis don grub gnyis

3. mcho ga yin § tshe ’grub [±4S] chos brgyam dang [±13S]

4. tshi srid dar dang dpaldn (dpal ldan) tshi ring gnyis phyed | dkon mchog rin chen nas phyed mcho ga yin | § tshe brgyad la g.yu ru dang

5. nyi ma phun tshogs phyed phye[d] mcho ga yin | § tshes dgu la sku zhabs rdoer (rdo rje) zhabs brtan yin | § tshes bcu la kun dga’ dpal

6. ’byor gyi mcho ga yin | § tshes bcuig (bcu gcig) la bkris (bkra shis) dang ring ’dzin dpal rtsang gnyis kyis chang kyu bod khal gcig | § tshes

7. bcuis (bcu gnyis) bcuṃ (bcu gsum) la yul [pa?] nas ’jaṃs pa’i byor chags yin | § tshes bcu bzhi bco lnga bcu drug thugs sob bcong byor chags yod | § tshes bcu

8. bdun la ’brags kar padma’i smon laṃ yod | § nyer lnga la bsteng ma dpal ldan me me gnyis nas byor chags [2-3S] | § hor zla bzhi nam

9. bkang la mtha’ ru chos skyabs dang tshe ris rgyal mtshan gnyis byor chags yin | chos ga yin | § tshes gsuṃ la bkra shis bdon grub nas

10. cho ga yin | § tshes lnga drugs la smon laṃ yod | § tshes bdun la gted pa tshis ring bsaṃ phel tshi ra’i chos skyabs sri dar bsaṃ phel

11. tshi ring phuo^gs (phun tshogs) bzhi yi cho ga yin | § tshes brgyad la bde zhin chos grol kyis cho ga yin | § tshes bcu la jo mo rdoe (rdo rje) mkhro’i (mkha’ gro’i)

12. cho ga yin | § tshes bcu gsuṃ la bla ma’i bdud rjod [= dus mchod] | § tshes bcui (bcu bzhi) la gu ru dang spen pa sri dar gnyis sku rim | § tshes bcnco (bco lnga) la rgya^s

13. pa’i byor chag | § hor zla brgyad pa la gnaṃ gang mchod pa’i smon laṃ cig yod | § tshes brgyad la smon laṃ cig yod | § tshes brgyad la

14. phur pa ’khor kyis smon laṃ mar me sbyin bdag la nyin bshaṃs | § bde yi nyin phur pa ’khor pha bzan nas byor phyags rgyab ras bse

15. mkhal | mar khu zo ba bdrug lin {phun} phul pa yin | § hlor (hor zla) bcu pa’i tshes bcu la sku zhwog zil mnon kyis smon

16. laṃ yin | § tshes bcuṃ (bcu gsum) la gu ru nas phyed | tshe sri dar dang dkoog (dkon mchog) rien (rin chen) nas phyed | § bcngo (bco lnga) la bso ma tshul khrim kyis byor phyags

17. § bkun bka’ dpal ’byor kyi gnaṃ gang la byor phyags | § hlor (hor zla) bcuig (bcu gcig) ba’i tshes bco lnga la spen pa sri dar dang zla ba bsaṃ ’grubs gnyis kyis

18. byor phyags yin | § dang po’i tshes bcu la ’byaṃs la mar me kun tshes ri’ yin | bkris (bkra shis)

19. ’don ’grubs tshe ring kyis ho bzla bzhi pa’i tshe bcuig (bcu gcig) la dngul bcu ’byor bchags yin | ho bzla bzhi

20. pa’i tshe bzhi la bla ma drung raṃ pa’i nyi shu rtsa lnga ’byor bchag yin bchog dga’ yin

21. {pa’i btshe bcuis la 1S} ho bzla zhi pa’i tshe bcuis (bcu bnyis) la spa bzang btshe ring kyis dngul bcu

22. gsuṃ ’byor bchag yin | smo laṃ mar me yin | zla ba 1 pa’i tshe 25 tshugs rnaṃs rgyal kyi byor chag

23. dngul 15 bul |


Translation
Concerning endowments
1st month
The village patrons have given half, and the nun Dechen Chödrol has given half. This is a ritual.

4th day: The prayer for the nun Ngawang Chödzom
5th day: The ritual of Rigdzin Palzang and Trashi Döndrub (remainder of line 3 damaged)
[7th day?] … half from Tshi Hridar and Palden Tshering, and half from Könchog Rinchen. This is a ritual.
8th day: This is a ritual funded equally by Yungdrung and Nyima Phuntshog.
9th day: This is a zhabs brtan ritual [on behalf of?] Kuzhab Dorje.
10th day: A ritual of Kunga Paljor.
11th day: The basis for the beer is 1 bod khal of beer donated by Trashi and Rigdzin Palzang.
12th and 13th days:  The endowment for the [ceremony of] Maitreya is from the villagers.
14th, 15th and 16th days: endowment for the ceremony of renewal of vows.
17th day: The prayer for Pema of Braga.
25th day: Endowment of [—] by Palden of Tengma and her female relative.

4th month
Endowment by Tharu Chökyab and Tshering Gyaltsen; this is a ritual.
3rd day: A ritual [sponsored] by Trashi Döndrub.
5th and 6th day: A prayer.
7th day: A ritual of four people of Te, Tshering Samphel, Tshering Chökyab, Hridar Samphel and Tshering Phuntshog.
8th day: A ritual of Dezhin Chödröl.
10th day: A ritual of the nun Dorje Khandro.
13th day: The annual ceremony to commemorate the death (dud rjod < dus mchod) of the [unidentified] lama.
14th day: A sku rim ceremony [sponsored by] Guru and Penba Hridar.
15th day: Endowment by rGyas pa…?

8th month
For the ceremony of the 30th day of the [previous?] month there is a prayer.
8th day: A prayer, the prayer [sponsored by] the Phurpa Khor society. On that day, the association (pha bzan < pha tshan) of the Phurba Khor society has made an endowment that gives [annually]: 1 se khal of buckwheat, and a quantity of oil equal to 6 zo ba of barley.

10th month
10th day: The prayer for Kushog Zilnon.
13th day: Half from Guru, and half from Tshe[ring] Hridar and Könchog Rinchen.
15th day: Endowment by Soma Tshultrim.
30th day: Endowment by Kunga Paljor.

11th month
15th day: Endowment by Penba Hridar and Dawa Samdrub.

1st month
10th day: The butterlamps for Maitreya are from Kün Tshering

(Different hand)

4th month
11th day: Döndrub Tshering made an endowment of 10 rupees.
4th day: The Lama Drung Rampa made an endowment of 25 [rupees] for a ritual.
12th day: Endowment of 13 rupees by Pazang Tshering. This is for prayers and for butter lamps.

1st month
25th day: Endowment of 15 rupees by Namgyal of Tshug.

Commentary
This document and the next, KCh/04, provide a list of the ceremonial activities of Künzang Chöling. The list of these occasions is considerable shorter in KCh/04. Since neither of the documents is dated, we do not know if the shorter list represents a period in the convent’s history when its activities in its annual cycle of rituals were just beginning to burgeon, or if this is the faded residue of a more vibrant era. The present document lists the religious occasions as belonging to one of two main categories: rituals (cho ga) and prayers (smon lam). Two other categories of rituals that feature are sku rim and zhabs brtan. In most cases we are not told precisely which ritual or prayer is involved, and such details as are recorded are concerned more with the sponsorship of the events and their intended beneficiaries than with liturgical features.

It is clear from this document that the ceremonial activities of the convent were not evenly distributed across the year but limited to just five months: the first, fourth, eighth, tenth and eleventh. While it is likely that there were certain daily rituals that were performed by at least one of the officials who was probably in residence for the duration of her incumbency, making offerings of fresh water (yon chab) and juniper smoke (bsang) in the morning, lighting a lamp in the evening and so forth—the other members of the community would have resided in their family homes for most of the year and assembled in the convent only on these occasoins. The ceremonies that are listed are linked with the names of individuals from the nearby communities. In the case of rituals, the people in question were probably the sponsors of these events, whereas those associated with prayers are the deceased beneficiaries.

The last two entries are written in a different hand, and clearly represent additions to the endowments for those two months—the 4th and the 1st—after the main part of the document had been written.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 04

Date: none given
Lines: 10
Script: ’khyug

Summary
An undated list of the ceremonies performed in the annual cycle of Gönpa Gang; apparently an incomplete version of KCh/03.

Transliteration
1. § byor phyag skor | hol dang po la byin bdag yul pa {1S} phyed jo mo bde chen chos brol phyed | cho ga yi | zla pa dang po tshes zhis la

2. jo mo nga dbang chos ’dzom kyis smon laṃ yin | tshe {drug} lnga la [rigs] ’dzin dpal rtsing dang bkra shis bdon ’grubs gnyis kyis cho [1-2S]

3. tshes drugs la gu ru chos spel dang yul pas nyis nas [6-7S] tshes bdun la tshi sri thar dang dpal ldan tsh[e ring]

4. gnyis nas phyed kon chogs rin chen nas phyed cho ga yin tshes rgyad la g.yu ru dang nyi ma phun tshogs gnyis nas phyed phyed cho ga yin tshes dgu

5. sku ’zhabs rdo rje ’zhabs ldan yin tshes bcu la kun kha pal ’byor kyis cho ga yin | tshes bcu gcig la bkra shis dang ring ’dzin dpal gsang

6. gnyis chang gyu bod ’khal cigs tshes bcuin (bcu gnyis) bcuṃ (bcu gsum) la yul pa nas ’jwam pa’i byor phyags yin | tshes bcu zhi co lnga bcu drug ’thugs sob

7. cong ’byor yod tshes bcu dun la brags kar pad ma yi smon laṃ yod | nyer lnga la ltags ma dpal ldan gnyis nas byor =gs yin | hol

8. zla pa zhis pa’i gnaṃ kang la thon rgyu chos bkyabs dang tshes ris rgyal gnyis nas byor phyags cho ga yin zhi pa’i tshes gsuṃ la bkra shis

9. bdon grubs nas cho ga yin | tshes lnga drugs la smon laṃ yod | tshes bdun la mted pa tshes ring gsam ’phel tshes chos bskyabs sri dar

10. gsaṃ phal tshes ris phun tshogs kyis cho ga yin | tshes brgyad la bde zhin chos brol kyi cho ga yin | tshes bcu la jo mo rdo rje mkha gro cho ga yin |


Translation
1st  month
The village patrons (lacuna) half, and Sister Dechen Chödrol [has given] half

4th day: Sister Ngawang Chödzom’s prayer ceremony
5th day [Rig]dzin Palzang and Trashi Döndrub’s ritual
6th day: Guru Chöphel and the Community, those two...
7th day: Tshi Hridar and Paldan give half, and Könchog Rinchen gives half. This is a ritual.
8th day: Yuru and Nyima Phuntshog give half each. This is a ritual.
9th day: the zhabs brtan ceremony for Kuzhab Dorje.
10th day: Kunga Paljor’s ritual.
11th day: Trashi and Rigdzin Palzang have given, as the basis for beer, 1 bod khal [of barley]
13th and 14th days: The endowment for the Maitreya [ceremony] is from the villagers
14th, 15th and 16th days: endowment for the ceremony of renewal of vows
17th day: Prayer for Pema of Braga
25th day: Endowment from Palden of Tengma and one other

4th month
4th day, dark moon: Chökyab and Tshering Gyal’s ritual [based on an] endowment.
3rd day: ritual [funded by] Trashi Döndrub.
5th, 6th day: prayer.
7th day: A ritual of Tshering Samphel, Tshe[ring] Chökyab, Hridar Samphel and Tshering Phuntshog.
8th day: A ritual of Dezhin Chödrol
10th day: A ritual of Sister Dorje Khandro.


Commentary
This document is an incomplete copy or, less probably, an earlier version, of KCh/03. The contents are identical to that of the latter up to the 10th day of the 4th month, but it lacks entries for the subsequent months. It is likely that the remaining entries were listed on a separate sheet that has been lost.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05aPS

Male Wood Dog year (1874 or 1934)
Remarks: Booklet, folded along a horizontal axis and stitched along the fold. 4 pages, with 7, 7, 6 and 4 lines per page.
Script: tshugs

Summary
The Kushog Lama Nyildabum has dismissed the nuns of Tshug for a period of three years. Measures are taken to keep the convent open.

Transliteration

HMA/KCh/Tib/05a
1. shing pho ’khyi lo kyis ho bzla gsuṃ
2. pa’i btshe lnga la sku shogs bla ma nyi bzla buṃ kyi
3. btshugs bjo ma rnaṃs lo gsuṃ mgon pa gang nas bston pa’i
4. § rgyu la bstan nas ÷ u mdzad chos
5. ’dzin ’grol ma dang | u bdzad bstan
6. bzang mo gnyis gtsos pa’i | btshugs ’jo
7. ma dang | btshugs rgan pa bkra shis btshe ring dang rgan

HMA/KCh/Tib/05b
1. pa oyan (o rgyan) rgyan btshe ring gnyis btsos pa’i btshugs
2. yul pa bka’ ’gros mdzad nas mgon
3. pa gang bstong pa’i rgyu la bstan nas ÷ ’jo
4. § ma re re la dngul gnyis gnyis btshugs
5. yul pa ’grong pa re re la dngul gnyis gnyis
6. dus ste ÷ ga ga sku bsho la bskyi bsdug zhu
7. nas | mgon pa la dad ’gos ’byung ÷ ’di

HMA/KCh/Tib/05c
1. yis lhag dngul lnga bcu les nas ÷ ’jo
2. ma rnaṃ nas ÷ btshugs yul pa la snang bgos
3. zhus nas ÷ snang pa yin | bsde la bes
4. § bsags nas ÷ lo re re la ’phogs
5. rgyab kyu yin | phog rgyab dus u mdzad gtsos
6. pa’i | ’dras mo rnaṃs ÷ rgan pa gtsos

HMA/KCh/Tib/05d
1. pa’i ’dras pho rnaṃs mdzad nas ÷ ’phog
2. rgyab kyu bchod ÷ o mdzad gtsos pa’i
3. ’jo ma rnaṃs kyis bstag ÷ X rgan pa gtsos
4. pa’i yul pa’i rnaṃ bstag X

Translation
Male Wood Dog year (1874, 1934), 3rd Tibetan month, 5th day. The Kushog Lama Nyildabum has dismissed the nuns of Tshug for a period of three years. Accordingly, the nuns of Tshug who are led by their precentors Chödzin Drolma and Ten Zangmo, and the people of Tshug who are led by their headmen Trashi Tshering and Ogyan Tshering, had a discussion. Since Gönpa Gang was to be vacated [the following measure was taken]: funds were collected at a rate of 2 rupees per nun and 2 rupees per household in Tshug. The situation was explained to the noble Kushog [who said that the nuns] should remain in the convent. A total of 50 rupees was left over. The nuns asked the people of Tshug to give them the money, and they did so. Interest on this should be collected, and each year there should be a transfer of property. When this transfer takes place, the senior [nuns] who are led by the precentor, and the senior men [of the village] who are led by the headmen, should perform it. It has been decided that a transfer of property should be made. The nuns who are led by the precentors set their mark (cross); the members of the community [of Tshug] who are led by their headmen set their mark (cross).

Commentary
The year is given as Wood Dog, which may be either 1874 or 1934, and there are few indications as to which it was, since the three individuals who are named appear in no other documents. But the text refers to the “emptying” of the convent as a consequence of the dismissal of the nuns; and since, in 1934, the convent was inhabited only by nuns of Tshug, whereas nuns from other villagers were present in 1874, the later date is the likelier one. Moreover, to judge from the other documents, the state of the convent’s finances in 1874 seems to have been quite healthy.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05bPS

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05aPS

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05cPS

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05aPS

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05dPS

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 05aPS

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 06a

Date: Wood Dog (1874 or 1934)
Lines: 9
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Copy of HMA/KCh/Tib/05

Transliteration
1. [sh]i[ng] mo mkhyi lo kyis ho bzla gsuṃ pai tshe 5 la | sku shogs blaṃ (bla ma) nyi zla buṃ kyi tshugs jo mo rnaṃ lo suṃ dgon pa gang nas ston pi rgyu la bstan nas |

2. [±10S] u dzad sta[n] [1-2S] a [nis] rtsos pa= | tshugs jo mo dang tshugs rgan pa bkris (bkra shis) tshe ring dang

3. rgan pa oyn (o rgyan) tshe ring gnyis tsos pas tshugs yul pa bka’ gros mdzad nas | dgon pa gang stong stong pa’i rgyu la stan nas

4. jo ma re re la dngul gnyis gnyis tshugs yul pa la grong pa re re la dngul gnyis tsis dngul ’de | gaga sku shogs la

5. kyi ’dug zhus ste | mgon pa rgang la dad rgyu byungs | ’di yi lhag dngul las nas | jo ma rnaṃ nas

6. tshugs yul pa la snang gos zhus nas | snang pa yin | sde la ’bes sags nas | lo re re la phogs gyab gyu yin |

7. phogs gyabs dus u mdzad rtsos pa’i gras ma rnaṃs | rgan pa tsos pas bras pa rnaṃ mdzad nas

8. phogs gyabs rgyu chod | u mdzad tsos pas jo ma rnaṃ kyi rtags X | | rgan pa tsos pas yul

9. pa rnaṃ kyi rtags X |

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

Date: none given
Remarks: booklet, folded along a horizontal axis and stitched along the fold. Five pages, with five lines per page.
Script: tshugs

Summary
A list of ceremonies, with entries relating to different aspects of management, including loans made by the convent, and the amount of requisites and payments to officers.

Transliteration
HMA/KCh/Tib/07a
1. bla ma dang dkon gsuṃ la phyag ’tshal lo ÷  bla ma bstan
2. ’dzin ’dod ldan kyis bdung sten la ÷  tshes bskyabs yul pa’i ka
3. ’gros kyis bsteng nas ÷ hor zla bzhi pa’i tshes brgyad la ÷ bchod
4. =e [2S] sku [±4-5S] | nor bu don ’grub kyi bzhing
5. bco la nas zo se mkhal bcig yin | {nas 2S yin} bdung rten

HMA/KCh/Tib/07b
1. la naṃ bza’ gsol ’dus ÷ nas zo ba bco lnga tsos
2.  rgyu yin ÷ bde las lhags pa rtsos rgyu med ÷ lo gsuṃ nas
4.  ’phogs rgyabs rgyu yin ÷ ’phogs rgyabs pa’i ’dus su ’dar po
5.  che bzhig btsug kyu yin ÷ hor zla gsuṃ pa’i tshes nyer drug
6.  la ÷ (remainder of line deleted)

HMA/KCh/Tib/07c
1. {±6S} mtharu (mthar ru) choskyabs (chos skyabs) la dngul phyedng (phyed dang) gsuṃ yong ÷ hor
2.  zla bcu gcig pa’i tshes lnga la ’khyer pa yin ÷ hor zla dun pa’i tshes
3.  bcu la sku dga’ tshes ring la dngul gsuṃ khyer pa yin ÷ hor zla
4.  gsuṃ pa’i tshes nyer lnga la kun dga’ tshes ring la dngul cu khyer pa yin |
5.  ’phur ba tshes ring la dngul lnga yong |

HMA/KCh/Tib/07d
1. § ’thugs rje chen po ma’i bskod pa la ÷ bzhing sngon la nas
2.  ’bo mkhal gnyis yin {±3S} ’thugs rje chen mo’i rgyur rten yin |
3.  zo ba bzhi pa sa yin ÷ oyn (o rgyan) tshe ’dar kyis dngul co lnga ba ’di chos
4.  man ’gyur rten yin | ’thueg (’thug rje) chen po bsla bso naṃ ’theb ste
5.  dus kyu yin | nas bzhing thog dga’ ma man pa ma los ÷ rgya res
6. dga’ ma man pa ma los ÷ bdung 3  3 gyis gnyer dka’ gnyis kyis dus

HMA/KCh/Tib/07e
1. § bkla bdus kyu yin ÷ ‘dus rgan kyis bskom bchu la nas
2. zo do tsho gnyer bka’ gnyis la lo re re yin ÷ nas ‘bo mkhal
3. gnyis dang nas zo drug pa tsha ma rgyab pa’i ang me ÷ yul kyis dgong thog
4. nas tsha dang mar ‘khugs gi rgyan na (= rgan pa?) sluṃ zo lnga tshod mchod pa yin |
5. bzhag sha bzhu shu me |

HMA/KCh/Tib/07f
1. § na mo lo ki shri ya ÷ mgoon (mgon po) po dang ’jaṃ pa’i dbyangs
2. phyag ’tshalo (tshal lo) ÷ ’chu pho byi lo la | mgono (mgon po) gang gi [jo?]
3. ste kyis nang gi ma yige (yi ge) snying ma bsaṃ par bgod pa [±4S]
4. padma mkha’gro’ (mkha’ ’gro) la dngul 1 bsong ÷ yang bsaṃs pel dngul bzhi
5. yong ÷ bkris (bkra shis) bzang po la dngul gcig yong ÷ {lo rta yos la}
6.-7. deleted

Translation
Homage to the lama and the triple gem. For the reliquary of Lama Tenzin Döden, following a discussion among the people of Tsekyab, on the 8th day of the 4th month (lacuna). From the Cola field of Norbu Döndrub there shall be one se khal of barley. When the reliquary is redecorated [and reconsecrated], 15 zo ba of barley shall be boiled [to make beer]. No more than that may be boiled. Every three years there shall be a transfer of temple property [to the new stewards]. At the time of the transfer, a large prayer flag should be raised.

On the 26th day of the 3rd month, (lacuna). Tharu Chökyab shall receive 2.5 rupees. It was taken on the 5th day of the 11th month.

On the 10th day of the 7th month, 3 rupees were taken to Kunga Tshering. On the 25th day of the 3rd month 10 rupees were taken to Kunga Tshering. Phurba Tshering received 5 rupees.

The mother document (ma’i < ma yig?) of the Thugs rje chen po ceremony (probably sMyung gnas): there shall be 2 ’bo khal of barley from the Ngön field—this shall be the material base for the Thugs rje chen po ceremony. It is a field with a seed capacity of 4 zo ba.

The 15 rupees of Ogyan Tshedar are the basis for the votive lamps. The fee (i.e. grain?) for the Thugs rje chen po ceremony should be collected when all the fields have been planted (so nam theb te). Only good quality barley may be given, and only good-quality buckwheat may be given. The two stewards (gnyer ka) should collect 3 bamboo-trunk measures each as their fee for carrying out the collection (dus bkla). There shall be two zo ba of barley for the collectors’ beer (bskom bchu). The stewards (tsho? = stewards of the sectors?) shall receive this each year. With the two ’bo khal of barley and the six zo ba of barley they have no choice but to acquire salt. Barley, salt and oil should be bought at the current village rate. It has been decided that the headmen should boil 5 zo ba of grain to make the beer. There shall be no excuses.

Homage to Lokeśvara. Homage to Gönpo (or the convent) and Maitreya. Male Water Rat year. The old internal mother document of the convent of Gönpa Gang is hereby renewed.

Pema Khandro received 1 rupee
Sampel received 4 rupees
Trashi Zangpo received 1 rupee

In the Hare year —

Commentary
Note that second page stipulates a three-yearly handover, not the more usual four.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07b

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07bPS

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07c

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07d

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07PSa

Please see the text box HMA/KCh/Tib/ 07a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 08

Dates: Several given, from Wood Tiger (1854?) to Water Sheep (1931?)
Lines: 23
Script: tshugs

Summary
A list of loans made by the convent in 11 non-consecutive years.

Translation
1. [±7S] shing pho stag (1854, 1914) lo la mtha’ ru skyabs la dngul bdrug yong | yos lo (1867, 1927?) la ’jo mo pad ma mkhro’ (mkha’ gro) la
2. dngul gnyis yong | me pho sta (1846, 1906) lo la ’jo mo pad ma chos grol ma la dngul bcuig (bcu gcig) yong | nga dbang tshul khrim la dngul drug yong | rig ’dzin {1} la
3. dngul bzhi yong | mkhro’ (mkha’ gro) la dngul gnyis yong | zla ba bsaṃ ’grub la dngul phyed dang bcuig (bcu gcig) yong | mkhro’ (mkha’ gro) [±7S] |
4. (entire line missing)
5. ga tshe ring la dngul cig yong | oyn (o rgyan) rdoer (rdor rje) la dngul cig yong § yang sa mo sbrul lo la [±9S]
6. brgyad yong | bkun rga tshe ring la dngul brgyad yong | yang bkun rga tshe ring dngul lnga yong | [±9S]
7. la dngul gnyis yong | mtha’ ru chi skyabs la dngul gnyis | chu pho byi (1852, 1912) [1-2S] mtha’ ru [±9S]
8. yong | ’jo mo smu g.yung la dngul bdrug yong | lo rta glang (date?) la ch[o]s skyabs tshe ring phun tshogs la dngul gnyis yong | bkun dga’ chi
9. (probable point of insertion at * below) lo rta lug lo la steng mas naṃ dga’ la dngul lnga yong
10. skyab la dngul gsum yong */ chu bo byi lo (1852, 1912) la g.yu ru tshe ring la dngul bco lnga yong | nyi ma phun tshogs la dngul gnyis yong | chu pho byi lo la
11. * bsteng mi naṃ dga’ la dngul gsum yong |
12. pad ma dngul brgyad yong */ sri dar phun tshogs la dngul dgu yong | bsteng mi naṃ kha’ la dngul bdun yong | bsted pa rin bu khri la dngul bcu yong | pad ma
13. men khrid la dngul bcu yong | mchog mdzom la dngul dgu yong | ’thar dkyed tshe ring la dngul bdun yong | sgro sma la dngul lnga yong
14. dkoog (dkon mchog) tshi {1S} ri la dngul {1S} gsuṃ yong | mtsho mo la dngul gnyis yong | oyn (o rgyan) lhrub (lhun grub) la dngul gnyis yong | nor bu tshi ri la dngul gcig
15. yong | bstan ’dzin rnaṃs rgyal la dngul gnyis yong | chos skyong la dngul bdrug yong | tshe dbang lhrub (lhun grub) la dngul gnyis yong | chu mo glang (1853, 1913) lo
16. la nyi ma phun tshogs la dngul gnyis yong | chu mo glang lo la bkras bzang po la dngul gnyis yong | shing brtag (1854, 1914) lo la g.yu ru
17. tshi ring la dngul bcuig (bcu gcig) yong | shing pho stag lo la mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) la dngul bzhi yong | shing pho stag lo la bkris (bkra shis) bzang mo la dngul gsuṃ yong |
18. shing pho stag lo la mkhro’ (mkha’ gro) la dngul gnyis yong | shing pho stag lo la pad ma la dngul gsuṃ yong | yang bkris (bkra shis) bzang mo la dngul drug yong |
19. lcags mo bya lo (1861, 1921) la mkhro’ (mkha’ gro) la dngul 1 yong | oyn (o rgyan) rdoer (rdor rje) dngul phye dang bzhi yong |

(different hand)
20. ’don ’grubs tshe ring ’byor bchags dngul lnga nyi ma phun tshogs la yong | ’don ’grubs tshe ring kyis ’byor ’chags
21. bsri dar bsaṃs ’grubs la dngul lnga yong | spen pa bsrid dar la dngul 10 yong | dkoog (dkon mchog) rien (rin chen) la dngul lnga yong | ’phyo bsting
22. la dngul lnga yong | ’jo mo rdo (rdoe) rje mgrol ma la dngul 4 yong | pad ma ’grol ma la dngul 2 yong | lcags mo lugs (1871, 1931) la
23. bsteng mas gu ru bkris (bkra shis) la dngul ’phyed gsuṃ yong |


Tabular summary

(can't be shown in this text box)

Commentary
The years are not in sequence, suggesting that this document may be a compilation of records in which loans for particular years were recorded on separate pieces of paper and copied down in no particular order. The nature of the entries is made clear on lines 20 and 21, where it is stated that the sums received by two people are “[from] the endowment [made] by Döndrub Tshering”. Since each of the borrowers has taken 5 rupees, Döndrub Tshering presumably made an endowment of at least 10 rupees.

It is not stated whether the loans are for fixed terms or sine die. In some cases, the year cannot be identified positively because of the absence of the element, and in other cases the date is missing altogether because of damage.


HMA/KCh/Tib/ 09

Date: Fire Tiger year (1866 [Sch])
Lines: 7
Script: ’khyug


Summary
Record of placement of loans; guarantors are specified in some cases.

Transliteration

1. § med stags bzla ba 4 ba’i tshe 1 res za bzla ba’i nyin | ’jo mo snang rtsi ngos kyi dngul =ug =i= lags | gu ru chos skyab la dngul nyiu (nyi shu) rtsa ’drug song | [bhan] tsa lhag pa tshe ring yin |

2. tshe ring ’rgyal mtshan dngul 3 songs | bhan rtsa bzla ba chos phel yin | pad ma gro ma la dngul brgyad song | bhan rtsa ’rgyal mtshan yin |

3. bkris (bkra shis) bzangs spo la dngul snyis song | bhan rtsa o rgyan rdoe (rdo rje) yin | ’jo mo spen pa dbang mo la dngul ’phyed snyis song | bhan stsa kar ma lha mo yin |

4. ’jo mo sku ga lha mo la dngul ’drug song | bhan rtsa tshe ring ’brags pa yin | ’brag gar g.yu ru tshe ring la dngul cigs song | bhan rtsa nyi ma dpal mo

5. yin | ’jo mo byang chub dpal mo la dngul 3 | song bhan rtsa dul li yin | jo mo bzla ba chos ’dzoṃ la dngul 10 song | ’jo mo nga dbang

6. la dngul phyed dang bdun song | tang mi bzla ba rgyal mtshan la dngul ’phyed dang ’dun song | {tshe ring} karma tshe ring gis zhing spuṃ spyi zo ba gang sa la thogs

7. zo ba ’rgyad yin | bkra shis |

Translation

Fire Tiger year (1866), 4th [recte 3rd] month, 1st day, Monday. Internal accounts among the nuns with respect to the distribution of principal (translation tentative).

Guru Chökyab – 26 rupees; the guarantor is Lhagpa Tshering
Tshering Gyaltsen – 3 rupees; the guarantor is Dawa Chömphel
Pema Drolma – 8 rupees; the guarantor is Gyaltsen
Trashi Zangpo – 2 rupees; the guarantor is Ogyen Dorje
Sister Penba Angmo – 1.5 rupees
Sister Kunga – 6 rupees; the guarantor is Tshering Dragpa
Guru Tshering of Braga – 1 rupee
Sister Ngawang – 6.5 rupees
Dawa Gyaltsen of Tengma – 6.5 rupees

There are 8 zo ba of yield from the Pumci field of Karma Tshering, which has a seed capacity of 1 zo ba.

Blessings.

Note
Lines 2, 3, 4, 5, bhan rtsa: while this is almost certainly a Nepali term it is not at all clear what it is meant to represent. From the context, however, we may reasonably conclude that the meaning is “guarantor”.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 10PS

Date: Wood Ox (1865, 1925?), Water Tiger (1842, 1902?), Earth Snake (1869, 1929?)
Lines: 7
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Record of loans made over three non-consecutive years.

Transliteration
1. {gla} shing glang (1805, 1865, 1925) zla ba 3 ba’i tshe 10 nyin | {gon pa gang gi do sdoṃ dpal mo la
2.  yul pa’i dngul — 30 | jos sti dngul 25 dpal mo la ’byung}
3.  chu {=yi} rtags lo zla ba 3 pa’i tshe 10 la | do sdoṃ tshe dbang dbang mo la tshugs yul
4.  pa’i dngul — 30 | jo rti dngul — 25 | yang kyer ṭaṃ 1 |
5.  tshe dbang dbang mo la yod |  § sa’brul ({1869} ) zla ba gsuṃ pa’i tshe 13 re sa
6. phur pa’i nyin do sdoṃ srid dar la {dngul} — yul pa’i dngul — 30
7. byo sti dngul 26 (or 25)

Translation
Wood Ox year (1865, 1925), 3rd month, 10th day. (deletions)

Water Tiger year (1842, 1902), 3rd month, 10th day. To the steward Tshewang Angmo, 30 rupees of the community of Tshug. To the convent community: 25 rupees. A further one half-rupee. This is with Tshewang Angmo.

Earth Snake year (1869, 1929), 3rd month, 13th day, Thursday. The steward Hridar received 30 rupees. The convent community received 26 (or 25) rupees.

Commentary
The dating of the entries is problematic. Since the date of last entry entry includes a weekday it should in principle be possible to establish the sexegenary cycle. However, none of the years in the span between the earliest and latest possible dates, 1689 to 1929, provides a match. The nuns named Tshewang Angmo (line 3) and Hridar (line 6) appear in several other documents, but unfortunately these, too, cannot be reliably dated.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11aPS

Date: Earth Ox (1889) among other dates
Remarks: Booklet of 7 pages, folded along a horizontal axis and stitched along the fold. Varying number of lines per page.
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
A list of loans made in several years. Loans that are no longer outstanding are deleted. Several different cash-to-grain exchange rates are specified, suggesting that the booklet may be a disorderly compilation of numerous documents from various periods.

Transliteration
HMA/KCh/Tib/11a
1. sa slang lo la tshugs ’jo mo nang rtsis gis dngul yig tho lags | bkris (bkra shis)
2.  ’dus gsuṃ ’de par shegs bha mchos skyi sku |/ ’bro yid ’don ’du byang chub
3.  thugs gyis sras | naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) mkhyab pa ta bu’i bcuig (bcu gcig) zhal | zi byed {’a} ’od dpag
4. med la phyags tshal lo | sa mo slang lo la ’jo rti’ nang mi dngul skyi bha yig
5. snying bha bsar rdo bskod spa la | thogs dmar | sa mo bya lo la rtang mi mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) la
6. dngul phyedng (phyed dang) lnga bsong | {zla ba bsaṃ brub la dngul zhi bsong} {rtang mi gu ru
7. mchi skyabs la dngul phyed nyi shu stsa ’drug} | dpal ’don grub la dngul phyed nyiu (nyi shu) rtsa
8. ’dun bsong | mtshi ring rgyal^n (rgyal mtshan) la dngul gsuṃ bsong | dpal bu khris la
9. dngul rgyad bsong

HMA/KCh/Tib/11b
1. {rtang mi gu ru phun^ogs la dngul bcu bsong} | padma ’brol ma la dngul sgyad bsong |
2. mtha’ ru mchoskyabs (mchos skyabs) la dngul phyed dang gnyis bsong | chos skyab rdoe (rdo rje) la
3. dngul phyed dang gnyis bsong | bkris (bkra shis) zang spo la dngul gnyis bsong | jo mo
4. spen pa dbang mo la dngul phyed gnyis bsong | ’jo mo dskun ska lha
5. mo la dngul ’drug bsong | ’bragr (’brag dkar) g.yu ru tsie ri la dngul cig bsong |
6. ’jo mo byang chub dpal mo la dngul gsuṃ bsong |

HMA/KCh/Tib/11c
1. {sridr (srid dar) bsam grub la dngul nyiu (nyi shu) thaṃs spa bsong} |   {jo mo bsomd (bsod rnaṃs) dpal mo la}
2. {dngul phye dang gnyis bsong} {±3S} {mchoen (mchod rten) dngul 10 song | ’dis}
3. {la bhed lo rim nas dngul 1 yin | yang 2S rtang mi zla ba bsaṃ grub la}
4. dngul 10 bsong | bhed lo rim shin dngul 1 yin |} me brul zla ba 9? pa’i tshe 15
5. res za zla ba la | {’jo mo rdo rje kha gro la dngul rgyad bsong | dngul res
6. la nas zo re res yin |} chu glang zla ba 4 pa’i tshe 1 res za 2 nyin rtang mi jo
7. mo zla ba mchon mdzoṃ la dngul gcu song pa de la sna dngul ree (re re) nas bzo ba
8. re re byang rgyu mchod pa yin |

HMA/KCh/Tib/11d
1. § chu khyi zla pa 4 pa’i tshe 26 nyin sda se gong rtar jo mo nga dbang la dngul phyed
2. song | rtang mi zla pa rgyal^n (rgyal mtshan) la phyedng (phyed dang) 7 song | byo mo nga rtags (thumbprint) zla rgyal^n rtags (thumbprint) |
3. sa slang lo la dpal ba zang srid dar gi zhing spuṃ chi zo ba gang sa la thog zo ba |
4. rgyad yin |

HMA/KCh/Tib/11e
1. § me lug zla tshe zang por nang rtsis dngul bhed gi ’bru rnaṃs dngul dmar
2. la gyus nas rtsis rtang ’dus dngul la nas zo 15 byes nas rtsis spyad skyang chod ba
3.  yin |
4. {±10S}
5. § rnang dgis rtsis steng ’dus sluṃ zo 12 sde rtso nas ston rgyu yin |
4. lhags lus {=o} bzhes bar ’byung sna ’o (?) rtsis ’byed rgyu dang —

HMA/KCh/Tib/11f
1. rab byung lhags pa tshe ring la dngul 1 kyed bzo ba 12 rtsis byed |

 

Translation

HMA/KCh/Tib/11a

Earth Ox year (1889). A list of internal accounts of the nuns of Tshug. Blessings.

[Invocation to Avalokitesvara and Amitābha]. An updated version, drawn up in the Earth Ox year, of the old list of loans of the convent community.

First, in the Earth Bird year (1849):

Khandro of Tengma – 4.5 rupees
{Dawa Samdrub – 4 rupees}
{Guru Chikyab of Tengma – 25.5 rupees}
Pal Döndrub – 26.5 rupees
Tshering Gyaltsen – 3 rupees
Pal Butrig – 8 rupees

HMA/KCh/Tib/11b
{Guru Phuntshog of Tengma – 10 rupees}
Pema Drolma – 8 rupees
Tharu Chökyab – 1.5 rupees
Chökyab Dorje – 1.5 rupees
Trashi Zangpo – 2 rupees
Sister Penba Angmo – 1.5 rupees
Sister Kunga Lhamo – 6 rupees
Yungdrung Tshering of Braga – 1 rupee
Sister Jangchub Palmo – 3 rupees

HMA/KCh/Tib/11c
{Hridar Samdrub – 20 rupees}
{Sister Sonam Palmo – 1.5 rupees}
{Illegible Chörten – 10 rupees}

{The annual interest on this is 1 rupee | Furthermore,}
{Dawa Samdrub of Tengma – 10 rupees}

{The annual interest on this is 1 rupee.}

(different hand)
Fire Snake year (1857 Sch), 9th ? month, 15th day, Monday.

{Sister Dorje Khandro – 8 rupees. [The interest on] each rupee shall be one zo ba of barley.}

(different hand)
Water Ox year (1853 Sch), 4th month, 1st day, Monday.

Sister Dawa Chödzom of Tengma – 10 rupees. It has been decided that 1 zo ba of barley should be paid [as interest] for every rupee.


HMA/KCh/Tib/11d
Water Dog year (1862), 4th month, 26th day, [Caitra] Dasain (?).
As above, Sister Ngawang – 0.5 rupee
Dawa Gyaltsen of Tengma – 6.5 rupees
Sister Nga[wang] places her mark (thumbprint); Dawa Gyaltsen sets his mark (thumbprint).

Earth Bull year (1889). There are 8 zo ba of barley as the yield from Palzang Hridar’s Pumshi field, which has a seed capacity of 1 zo ba.

HMA/KCh/Tib/11e
Fire Sheep year, on an auspicious day. When the grain that is the interest on money has been converted to cash, it has been decided that 15 zo ba of barley are to be exchanged for one rupee.

When an internal system of accounting has been applied, 12 zo ba of fermented grain should be boiled and provided.

(Meaning of line 4 unclear)

HMA/KCh/Tib/11f
For the 1 rupee of the ordained monk Lhakpa Tshering the interest on 1 rupee shall be calculated as 12 zo ba [of barley].

Commentary 
The numerous deletions in this document are almost certainly an indication that the borrowers had repaid the capital to the convent.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11bPS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11cPS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11dPS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11ePS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11fPS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 11gPS

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HMA/KCh/Tib/ 12PS

Date: Wood Monkey year (1884)
Lines: 18
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
List of the heirs (shul) of householders who have taken loans from Künzang Chöling, specifying the sums involved.

Transliteration
1. shing pho spres lo la ‘bun dngul 2 {gu ru chos dpel gi 3S [1S] ‘byung 1S}1S la {2S}
2.  {spen pa sridr (srid dar) ±10S} | lhags pa tshe ring dngul — 7 {1S} ‘byang yin |
3.  tshe ring zang mo shul ma ga ra ‘du drubs dngul phyed 4 skyed ngos len dgos |
4. spad ma grol ma grong (?) shul tshe dbang dpal mo la dngul phyed 7 rkyed ngos len gos |
5. byang chubs dpal mo shul la/ma ‘du li la phyed dngul 7 dkyed ngos …
6. phun {1S?} shul ma ’dus li la dngul 16 rkyed ngos len gos |
7. dpal zang phun tshogs shul ma tshi ring phuo^g (phun tshog) la dngul 26 len brgyu yod |
8. jo mo rdoer (rdo rje) bro ma shul mdzin gos tsang dngul 6 skyed ngos
9. phun tshog ring dzin shul mdzin kra shis bsaṃ drug dngul 6 dkyed ngos
10. (line illegible)
11. oyn (o rgyan) rdoe (rdo rje) shul mdzin byaṃ {2S} la dngul 17 rkyed ngos |
12. chos rten shul go tsang la dngul 13 skyed ngos |
13. stang ma pad ma bro ma shul tshe dbang dpal mo la dngul 6 rkyed ngos |
14. nyi ma za tshang gnyis la dngul 5 rkyed ngos
15. zla ba lha mo shags pa dngul 5 zhis
16. 1S tsho mo shags pa dngul 5 rkyed ngos
17. (line deleted)
18. sṃad phyogs mdzoṃ dngul 7 rkyed ngos

Paraphrase

(A tabular form cannot be shown here)
 

Commentary
The document provides an update on the current holders of estates, some of whose owners have changed due to inheritance. Six of the fifteen estate holders listed remain unchanged.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 15

Date: Fire Ox year (1937 [Sch])
Lines: 5
Script:

Summary
A receipt for the interest received by Gönpa Gang on loans from endowments.

Transliteration
1. § me glang zla ba 6 pa’i tshe 23 res za 4 nyin | goon (gon po) gang gang gi ldo ’daṃ gnyis {1} kyis dngul bhes ‘byung ’dzin | zla ba khen bro nas

2. dngul bhe zo ba—13 byung | tshe spang dspal mo nas dngul bhe zo ba—7 ’byung | skung ga bkra shis nas dngul bhe zo ba—20 ’byung |

3. bdu li nas dngul bhe zo ba 10 byung | go ’o zla ba lha mo dngul bhe zo ba 10 byung | ring ’dzin rdor rje nas dngul bhe zo ba 9

4. byung | kris (kra shis) bsaṃ ’drugs dngul bhe zo ba 3 ’byung | bzla pa rgyal mtshan dngul bhe zo ba 4 ’byungs | zla ba chos spal nas dngul bhe

5. zo ba phyed 3 byung | nga dbang bri khri dngul bhe zo ba skogs dang 2 byung

Emendations
1. tshes 23 res gza’; dgon pa sgang gi do dam; dngul bed byung 2. dngul bed; kog (< bkog?)

Translation
Fire Ox year (1937 [Sch]), 6th month, 23rd day, Wednesday. A receipt for the interest received by the two stewards of Gönpa Gang.

Dawa Khandro: 13 zo ba
Tshewang Palmo: 7 zo ba
Kunga Trashi: 20 zo ba
Duli: 10 zo ba
Gowo Dawa Lhamo: 10 zo ba
Rigdzin Dorje: 9 zo ba
Trashi Samdrub: 3 zo ba
Dawa Gyaltsen: 4 zo ba
Dawa Chöphel: 3 zo ba
Ngawang Butrig: 1.75 zo ba

Notes
Line 1, Fire Ox: both 1817 and 1937 are feasible years according to Schuh. 1937 has been selected as the more likely of the two.
Line 5, skogs: this SMT term kog, of uncertain etymology (perhaps bkog?) signifies “three quarters”.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 16

Date: Earth Tiger (1938)
Lines: 5
Script: ’khyug

Summary
A document of interest received from nine people of Tshug on loans of cash by the managers.

Transliteration

1. § sa stags lo la mgon gang sdo daṃ dngul bhed yie (yi ge) | bzla ba chos ’phel nas dngul bhed bzo ba 3 ’byung |

2. ’bragsr (’brags dkar) ’du li nas dngul bhed bzo ba 8 ’byung | tsha spangs dpal po nas dngul bha (= bhed) bzo ba 7 ’byung | bkra shis bsaṃ ’brub

3. bzo ba 3 ’byungs | nga spang ’bri ’bra dngul bhed bzo ba 4 ’byung | steng ma rnaṃs ’rgyal bzo ba gang ’byung |

4. sridr (srid thar) rgya^l (rgyal mtshan) nas dngul bhed bzo ba 14 ’byung | ring ’dzin rdo rje nas dngul bhed bzo ba 9 ’byung | bzla ba ’rgyal tshan

5. nas dngul bhed bzo ba 4 ’byung |

Selective emendations
1. sa stag; dgon sgang do dam dngul bed

Translation
Earth Tiger year (1938), a document of interest received on [loans] of cash by the stewards.

Dawa Chöphel: 3 zo ba
Braga Duli: 8 zo ba of barley
Tshewang Palmo: 7 zo ba of barley
Trashi Samdrub: 3 zo ba
Ngawang Dridra: 4 zo ba of barley
Namgyal of Tengma: 1 zo ba of barley
Hridar Gyaltsen: 14 zo ba of barley
Rigdzin Dorje: 9 zo ba of barley
Dawa Gyaltsen: 4 zo ba of barley

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 17

Date: Wood Pig (1875)
Lines: 8
Script:

Summary
Chi skyabs rdo rje of Tangma is unable to repay 34 rupees he has borrowed from Gönpa Gang. The Tshognam lamas and Thutob Lama mediate, and he agrees that if he is unable to pay the money he will leave the convent a field after his death.

Transliteration
1. shing mo ’phags lo hlo (hor zla) 3 pa’i tshe 29 re za 3 la | mgon pa gang dang | stang ma chi skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) 2 | mgon pa’ ’byor chag gi gyu la glang

2. mo ’byung nas | {duṃ byed par bstan} ngos tshog rnaṃs blaṃ (bla ma) dang | blaṃ (bla ma) thu stob 2 kyis | dum byedr (byed par) brtan | de nas phan la | ngos nga chi skyab rdoe (rdo rje)

3. [±18S] bhed nas zo ba ree (re re) so [1S] ster thub ma =igs =o= [1-2S]

4. nas ngos dngul gsuṃ bcu so {1S} bzhi so ’di byang phyogs | de yang byang ma thub na | zhin len sper ’di nga chi skyab rdoer (rdo rje) chi {skyab} ’dus zhing ’di

5. skal pa dang nyima naṃ gnas bar du | mgon pa gang gi dngul 34 la phul pa yin | de la dmar po tsho logs | {1S} snyogs pa sding logs med pa ngos chi skyabs

6. rdoe (rdo rje) rtags X |* jos ’di yang | bla ma nas gsung nas med pa la | de la dmar po tshos logs | snyogs pa ’ding logs med pa jo ’di rtags X

7. *dgon rnas jo mo mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) jo mo btsun drus dbang mo cas

8. ’di yi cha spang la | {tshogs rgan | blaṃ (bla ma) 2S} dpal bzang phuo^gs (phun tshogs) | yig ’dri tshogs rnaṃs yin |

Emendations
1. phag lo; tshes 29 res gza’; dgon pa sgang; dgon pa’i sbyor ’jags kyi rgyu la gleng 2. byung nas; par brten 3. bed nas 4. sbyangs chog; sbyong ma thub; zhing le 5. dgon pa; tshos log; rnyogs pa gting log 6. * jo sde yang; tshos log; rnyogs pa gting log 7. dgon gnas (or nas); dbang mo bcas 8. cha dpang; yig ’dri

Translation
Wood Pig year (1875), 3rd month, 29th day, Tuesday. There has been a issue between Gönpa Gang and Chikyab Dorje of Tangma over endowments for the convent. I, the lama of Tshognam, and Lama Thutob brokered [the following] agreement: “Henceforth, I Chikyab Dorje, having been unable to pay the interest of one zo ba of barley on (lacuna). I shall repay the principal of 34 rupees. However, if I am unable to repay it, I shall give this field, named Lenper, for the 34 rupees for the convent to have as long as the world age and the sun endure. The colour red should not fade, and the sediment shall not rise from the deep.” Chikyab Dorje sets his mark. On behalf of the convent, the nuns Khandro and Tsöndrü Angmo, and the convent, without the lama having said anything, without the colour red fading or sediment being raised from the deep, set their mark. The witness was Palzang Phuntshog. The scribe was [the lama of] Tshognam.

Note
Although the date of 1875 is not justified by Schuh (the 29th day of the 3rd month in the corresponding Wood Pig year fell on a Wednesday, not a Tuesday), this is the most likely year, since Thuthob Lama appears in other documents from around this time. 1815 and 1913—neither of which is justified by Schuh—would have been respectively too early and too late.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 18

Date: Wood Horse (1774 [Sch])
Lines: 9
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Transfer of Gönpa Gang property in Wood Horse 1774. The price of barley is given as 60 zo ba per rupee.

Transliteration
1. shing sta zla ba 3 pa’i tshe nyer 2 re za 2 pa’i nyin | do sdoṃ
2. tshe dbang dbang mo nas do sdoṃ bsaṃ ba ’brag gar
3. byo mo smo laṃ dbang mo la yul pa’i dngul 30 |
4. byo sti dngul — 25 | yang kyer ṭaṃ —1 | tshugs yul
5. la bzhus nas dngul nas dngul rgya la 10 bhed byas nas
6. dngul khos na dngul | ’bru khos na ’bru snang ngos bsung
7. nas nes la yul gong nang star dngul re re la ’bru zo
8. ba drugs byes nas snang gyu yin | byo mo srid dar dang byo mo
9. smo laṃ dbang mo gnyis dngul nyer rgyad rgyad 28 | 28  gos pa yin |

Translation
Wood Horse year (1774), 3rd month, 22nd day, Monday. The outgoing steward Tshewang Angmo has transferred 30 rupees to the incoming steward Sister Mönlam Angmo of Braga. 25 rupees is for the convent community. There is an additional half rupee.

After a request made to the people of Tshug, on the basis of a 10 rupee interest on 100 rupees, if money is required (khos < mkhos), then money should be given, and if grain is required then grain should be given. The price of barley should be the same as in the village: for each rupee, interest of 6 zo ba of grain should be paid.

Sister Hridar and Sister Mönlam Angmo [still] need to be paid 28 rupees each.

Commentary
The concluding sentence is confusing. In KCh/22, the two outgoing stewards are named as Tshewang Angmo and Hridar, and the two new incumbents as Mönlam Angmo and Tshultrim Zangmo. In the present case, Tshewang Angmo and Mönlam Angmo are named as, respectively, the old and new stewards. However, Hridar is named as the partner of Mönlam Angmo, and therefore an incoming steward, and there is no mention of Tshultrim Zangmo. The fact that the day is given makes it possible to identify the sexegenary cycle, and the corresponding year is 1774. Further circumstantial evidence for such an early date is to found in the stipulation that the annual interest (of ten per cent) on one rupee should be 6 zo ba of barley—a figure six times higher than that specified in most cases. However, in KCh/22, although three out of four of the same nuns are named, the transfer is a different one, involving more substantial amounts of cash. Although it is almost certain that some of the documents are incorrectly dated, the coincidence of the names and the date make it highly unlikely that a different occasion of responsibility-transfer is concerned. The date of 1774 must therefore remain tentative.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 19

Date: Fire Bird 1837
Lines: 5+7
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Transfer of [part of?] the Gönpa Gang property to the new stewards.

Transliteration
Part 1
1. me mo bya lo zla 3 pa’i tshe 6 nying gon spa sgang gi [?S]
2. bo khal 13 dang nas zo 9 ’byung | rgya re bo khal 4 dang zo ba 8 ’byung |
3. sdo raṃ spa mo jo smo rten mchos ’jo dang yang ’jo mo dkar ma mchos ’dzoṃs snyis
4. skyi lags nas dngul 9 byung | sdo raṃ saṃ spa ’jo mo byang chog ’gro ma dang ’jo ma
5. nyi ma ’kho snyis kyi lags ’du ’byung yin |

Part 2
1. me mo bya lo zla ba 3 pa’i tshe 6 la | sgon spa gang phog las {dang}
2. mtho la sdo raṃ spa snying spa ’jo mo sten chos ’dzoṃ dang ’jo mo dkar ma ’dzoṃ la
3. phog las mtho | bo khal phyed 3 las yod pa’i ’dzin ’du gri | {steng ma zla ba
4. la dngul 3 gyi bhed las yod} | {zla ba 6 spa nang dngul 3 krad l= byang rgyu chos spa yin}
5. steng ma zla ba la dngul 3 len go yod | {1S} sgon spa gang gi dngul 3 ’jo
6. mo nyi dbang mo yod pa’i dngul la | bhe zo ba gsuṃ gsuṃ tsang li
7. nyi ma bsaṃ grub la las gos yod |


Translation
Part 1
Fire Bird year (1837), 3rd month, 6th day. The (lacuna?) of Gönpa Gang, received:

13 bo khal of [barley?] and 9 zo ba of barley
4 bo khal and 8 zo ba of buckwheat.

From the hands of the [outgoing] stewards Sister Ten Chödzom and Sister Karma Chödzom: 9 rupees. This was received by the hands of the incoming stewards Sister Jangchog Droma and Sister Nyima.

Part 2
Fire Bird year (1837), 3rd month, 6th day. A list of items that are left (las mtho < las tho) [and still have to be given for] the transfer of stewardship for Gönpa Gang; a list of the items that have yet to be transferred by the outgoing stewards Sister Ten Chödzom and Sister Karma [Chö]dzom: Dawa of Tengma.

It has been decided that the outstanding amount of interest on 3 rupees that has yet to be paid by Dawa of Tengma shall be paid in the sixth month.

He has [now] paid it (dngul 3 krad).

[The principal of] 3 rupees should be received from Dawa of Tengma.


Commentary
The meaning of the remainder of the document is uncertain. It seems to state that the interest of 3 zo ba of barley from the 3 rupees that have been borrowed by Sister Nyima Angmo should be transferred (las gos < sleb dgos?) to Nyima Samdrub from the village of Tsele. Alternatively, it may mean that the 3 rupees were an endowment by Sister Nyima Angmo that was borrowed by Nyima Samdrub, and that the grain interest has yet to received from him or her (la las gos < nas len dgos?).

Although no day is given that might help with identifying the sexegenary cycle, the relatively early date of 1837 (rather than 1897) is supported by the fact that the property transfer for 1897 is dealt with in a different document, KCh/25, that can be dated with reasonable certainty to that year.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 20

Date: Iron Ox year (1841)
Lines: 3
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Transfer of property between stewards.

Transliteration

1. lcags slang lo la rjo mo byang phyub brol ma dang rted jo mo nyi ma snyis kyi phogs krod ’bru ’bod khal 7 dang zo ba 15 ’byung |

2. yang skyar phogs dngul 11 ’byung | phogs len mi jo mo zla ba chos ’dzoṃs dang rted rjo mo spa zang snyis

3. tshugs ’bod khal 3 las yod |

Selective emendations
1. lcags glang; jo mo; gnyis kyi phog sprod

Translation
Iron Ox year (1841). At the transfer of property by the nuns Jangchub Drolma and the Te nun Nyima, 7 bod khal and 15 zo ba of grain were received. Furthermore, a transfer of 11 rupees was received. The recipients of the transfer were the nuns Dawa Chödzom and the Te nun Palzang.

3 bod khal of mustard seed are still to come.


HMA/KCh/Tib/ 21

Date: Six dates ranging from 1845 to 1865
Lines: 12
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Details of 6 four-yearly transfers of responsibility among stewards from 1845-1865.

Transliteration
1. § shing ’brul lo la gon pa sgang gi sdo sdaṃs snying pa rjo mo zla ba chos ’dzoṃ dang spa zang snyis nas phog nas

2. ’bod khal snyis ’byung | sdo raṃ bsaṃ pa rjo mo bsoṃd (bsod nams) bu khris dang pad ma tsho mo 2 la ’byung | rjo mo sdo raṃs

3. snying pa snyis nas | bsaṃs pa snyis kyi lags ’du nas ’bod khal 6 dang zo ba 14 sleb gos yod lags |

4. § sa mo bya (1849) lo la gon pa sgang gi sdoṃ raṃs snyis pa jo mo bsod rnaṃ bu khris dang pad ma tsho mo snyis snas phog nas bo khal 1 dang

5. zo ba 10 | gya re bo khal 2 | ma khu zo ba lnga yi sga ling yin | lo bzhi snas phar dngul 7 ’byung | phog sdar kha 1 ’byungs |

6. § chu glang zla pa 3 (1853) pa’i tshe 12 res sa dpal zang la | sgon pa gang gi sdo sdaṃ snying ma ’jo mo mkhro (mkha’ ’gro) tsho mo dang jo mo

7. ki ’dzoṃ gnyis nas phog nas bod khal 1 dang zo ba 14 | gyab res bod gal 4 dang zo ba 3 | mar khu zo ba drugs phog gyab pa’ yin |

8. § me ’brul (1857) zla pa 3 pa’i tshes 3 res za 2 nyin sdo sdaṃ snying spa phur pa ’gro ma dang sjo mo nyi ma gnyis nas phog nas zo ba 7 ’byung | gyabs res

9. bhod khal 3 dang zo ba 3 ’byung | mar gu zo phyed 3 gyabs pa yin | sjo {1S} mo bzhi nas mar dngul 3 ’byung |

10. § lcags mo bya lo (1861) la gon pa gang gi sdo sdaṃ gnyings ma jo mo zla pa lha mo dang jo mo shen rab bzang mo gnyis nas phogs nas |

11. zo ba 8 dang gyab res bo khal 1 dang | dmar gu zo ba 2 {’byung} phog gyab pa yin | § shing glang lo la sdo sdaṃ byo mo bu ’grigs {dang} nas sdoṃ (sdo dam)

12. sdoṃ (sdo dam) saṃ pa dpal mo la nas zo 5 dang | mar gu zo 1* phog gyab pa yin |

Translation
Wood Snake year (1845). From the former caretakers, the nun Dawa Chödzom and Pazang: 2 bo khal of barley have been received as the transfer (phog).
The two new stewards, the nuns Sonam Butri and Padma Tshomo, received it.

The two former caretakers should receive [a further?] 6 bo khal and 14 zo ba of barley.

(Line 4) Earth Bird year (1849). The former stewards of Gompa Gang, the nuns Sonam Butri and Pema Tshomo, have made a transfer of 1 bo khal and 10 zo ba of barley; 2 bo khal of buckwheat; a quantity of oil exactly equal to 5 zo ba of barley. In the past four years, 7 rupees have also been received. One piece of cloth has also been transferred.

(Line 6) Water Ox year (1853 [Sch]), 3rd month, 12th day, Friday. The former stewards of Gompa Gang, the nuns Khandro Tshomo and the nun Kidzom, have made a transferral of 1 bo khal and 14 zo ba of barley; 4 bo khal and 3 zo ba of buckwheat, and oil equal in weight to 6 zo ba [of barley].

(Line 8) Fire Snake (Sch: second of the two 3rd months in 1857), 3rd month, 3rd day, Monday. The old caretakers, Phurpa Droma and Nyima have transferred 7 zo ba of barley; 3 bo khal and 3 zo ba of sweet buckwheat, and oil equal in weight to 2.5 zo ba. From four of the nuns 3 rupees in coin has been received.

(Line 10) Iron Bird (1861). The old stewards of Gönpa Gang, Dawa and Shenrab Zangmo have transferred 8 zo ba of barley and 1 bod khal of buckwheat; oil equal in weight to 2 zo ba of barley.

(Line 11) Wood Ox year (1865). The outgoing caretaker Butrig has transferred to the new caretaker, Palmo, 5 zo ba of barley, and oil equal to 1 zo ba of grain.

Note
Line 5, sga ling: SMT galing is an epithet for the rod of a set of weighing-scales when it is in a horizontal position, signifying that the weight on either side is exactly equal.


HMA/KCh/Tib/ 22

Date: four years, Water Tiger to Fire Ox. See commentary for discussion of dates.
Lines: 13
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs
Remarks: each entry is written in a different hand.

Summary
Handover of property between caretakers on four occasions. Sexegenary cycles are not clear.

Transliteration

1. § chu stags lo la
2. sdo sdoṃ snying pa jo mo phur pa nas zo ba 6 | tshes dbang dbang mo la gyabs pa
3.  yin | mar zo ba gang gyabs pa yin | § sa ’brul lo la do sdoṃ snying ma
4. dpal mo nas do sdoṃ srid dar la nas zo ba lnga dmar zo phyed gyabs pa
5. yin | § shing sta lo la do sdoṃ snying ma tshe dbang dbang mo nas
6. nas zo ba 7 | byo mo smo laṃ dbang mo la ster pa
7. yin | yang mar zo ba 1 | byo mo sridr (srid thar) nas zo ba 6 | dmar zo phyed |
8. byo mo tshuṃ ’graṃ bzang pha la dngul 28 dang | nas zo 6 | mar zo
9. ba phyed | § me glang {=  4 {1S} =zhi} lo la byo mo tshuṃ ’grim bzang mo
10. dang dpal zang bu ’grigs 2 nas | byo mo gang ri ma dang bya mo chos ’grom
11. dpal zang bu ’grigs nas dngul 28 | so nas zo ba 7 | mar zo ga gang byo mo tshuṃ
12. ’grim zang mo nas dngul 28 | so nas zo ba 6 | dang mar zo phyed | mar khu ’zhag gu
13. thuṃ pa’i mar khu ’byung

Translation
Water Tiger year (1782?). The outgoing caretaker, Sister Phurba, has given 6 zo ba. She gave it to Tshewang Angmo; she gave 1 zo ba of butter.

Earth Snake year (1809?). The outgoing caretaker Palmo has given the caretaker Hridar 5 zo ba of barley and a quantity of butter equal in weight to half a zo ba of barley.

Wood Horse year (1774?). The outgoing caretaker Tshewang Angmo has given 7 zo ba of barley. She gave it to Sister Mönlam Angmo. She also gave butter equal in weight to 1 zo ba of barley.

From Sister Hridar: 6 zo ba of barley, and butter equal to half a zo ba of barley. To Sister Tshultrim Zangmo: 2 rupees, 6 zo ba of barley and butter equal to half a zo ba of barley.

Fire Ox year (1877?): From the nuns Tshultrim Zangmo and Palzang Butrig: 28 rupees and 7 zo ba of unhusked barley, butter equal to 1 zo ba of barley [to?] Sister Gangrima and Sister Chödröl, those two. From the nun Tshultrim Zangmo 28 rupees, 6 zo ba of unhusked barley, butter equal to half a zo ba of barley, and oil to last (thum < thub) nine days.

Note
The relatively early dates proposed for this document would be justified by the occurrence here of some of the names that also feature in KCh/18, which may date from 1774. However, two of the nuns who appear in the last entry (Fire Ox) also appear in KCh/23, where the date of 1881 for the Fire Snake year is justified by Schuh. Although it is not dated, the entry immediately preceding that for the Fire Ox year—the transfer from Sister Hridar—is likely to refer to an event that took place four years earlier (Water Bird 1873), since Sister Tshultrim Zangmo here is the incoming caretaker, whereas in the Fire Ox year she is outgoing. The last entry is written in a different hand, and it is quite possible that a scarcity of paper obliged the scribe to use a blank space on a document with information from a century earlier. The earlier entries remain enigmatic. Whatever the sexegenary cycle, Water Tiger (here 1782?) falls eight years later than Wood Horse (1774?), and yet Tshewang Angmo assumes the office of caretaker in Water Tiger after leaving it (eight years earlier) in Wood Horse. This could conceivably be the case if there were few enough nuns at that time that she should have been obliged to resume office after a break of just one four-year cycle. It may be noted that even if Water Tiger and Wood Horse belong to a later sexegenary cycle, whether 1834/1842 or 1894/1902 they would be out of step with the four-year cycle of transfers.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 23

Date: Iron Snake 1881 (Sch); Water (recte Wood) Bird, 1885
Lines: 9
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Outgoing stewards make property transfers to the incoming stewards.

Transliteration
1. § lcags mo ’brul lo zla ba 3 pa’i tshe 7 re phur pa la | do sdoṃ snying
2. ma jo mo gang ri ma dang jo mo chos ’grol gnyis nas phog
3. do sdoṃ sa spa tshe ring ’gro gar dang pad ma bu ’khrigs 2 la phog dngul 28 | 28
4. phogs ’byung | mar zo phyed 2 | mar gu zhags gu ’byung | nas zo ba 11 |
5. ’byung | (different hand) § chu mo bya lo zla ba 3 pa’i tshes 13 res za 2 nyin
6. ’do sdoṃ snying ma jo mo tshes ring gro ga’ dang jo mo span pa bu khrigs nyi nas
7. phogs do sdom saṃ pa tsha spang dang chos gro dbang mo 2 la phogs
8. dngul 28/28 phogs ’byung | mar zo phyed sdo | mar gu zhags gu ’byung |
9. nas zo ba 18 byung | rteng ma jo mo bu khrigs la zhags pa’i dngul 5 |

Translation
Iron Snake year (1881), 3rd month, 7th day, a Thursday. The outgoing caretakers Sister Gangrima and Sister Chödrol made a property transfer to the incoming caretakers Tshering Drokar and Pema Butrig. There was a transfer of 28 rupees each, and: butter equal to 1.5 zo ba of barley; 9 days’ worth of oil; 11 zo ba of barley.

Water Bird year (1873, error for Wood Bird 1885 [Sch]?), 3rd month, 13th day, Monday. The outgoing caretakers, Sister Tshering Drokar and Sister Pema Butrig transferred to the incoming caretakers, Tshewang and Chödro Angmo, the following property: 28 rupees each; butter equal to 1.5 zo ba of barley; 9 days’ worth of oil; 18 zo ba of barley.

5 rupees have been deposited [as a loan] with Sister Butrig of Tengma.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 24

Date: Water Snake (1893 [Sch])
Lines: 5
Script:

Summary
A receipt for the property transferred by the outgoing stewards.

Transliteration
1. § chu sbrul zla ba 4 ba’i nyi 2 res za 4 ba’i nyin | do sdaṃ gnying ma joo (jo mo) kun dga’ nas ’phogs rgyab [1S] |

2. do sdaṃ bsaṃ ba lags mdzoṃ dang dpal rtsang sdoṃ gnyis ’phogs ’byung ’dzin | mar dgu chos me=

3. zhags dgu ’byung | mar bzo ba phye sdo ’byung | nas bzo ba 30 ’byung | dngul 28 | 28  ’byung | yang kyer dngul 7

4. ’byos ’di dngul yin | hab spring gcig ’byung | do sdaṃ gnying ma gnyis nas nas bzo

5. ba sdo spar ba yin | yang kyer ṭaṃ 1 ’byung | ṭaṃ ba sdo sdaṃ lags la yod ba’i ’dzin

Translation
Water Snake year (1893 [Sch]). Wednesday, the 2nd day of the 4th month. A receipt for the property transferred by the outgoing steward, the nun Kunga, to the incoming stewards Lagdzom and Palzang.

Oil that will last for nine days
Butter equal to 1.5 zo ba of barley
30 (?) zo ba of barley
28 rupees each
A further 7 rupees – this belongs to the convent community.
A half-canister [of oil?]
The outgoing stewards have increased the barley by 2 zo ba.

Note
Line 4, hab spring: this measure, which occurs in several documents from South Mustang, represents the English term “half-tin”. This seems to have been a container of oil or margarine (Tib. shing mar) that was imported from India and used as a measure.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 25

Date: Fire Bird (1897 [Sch])
Lines: 9
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Transfer of property and responsibility between stewards, with items listed.

Transliteration

1. med bya zla pa 3 pa’i nyer 8 res za 0 pa’i nyin | gon gang gi do sdoṃ
2. gnying bo jo mo dpal rtsang lha mo dang jo mo lags dzom gnyi nas ’phogs
3. rgyab ba la | do sdoṃ bsaṃ ba jo mo lhan bcaṃ dang jo mo nor bzang gnyi
4. la phogs ’byung ’dzin | mar gu chos smen zhags gu ’byung | mar bzo
5. ba phyed sdo ’byung | nas zo ba 32 ’byung | dngul 28 | 28 ’byung | yang kyer
6. dngul 7 ’byung | ’byos ’di dngul yin | hab spring gcig ’byung |
7. do sdaṃ gnying ma gnyi nas nas zo ba sdo spar ba yin |
8. yang kyer ṭaṃ 1 ’byung | ṭaṃ 1 ba bka’ zhi dkarma lags la yod
9. pa’i ’dzin |

Translation
Fire Bird year (1897), 3rd month, 28th day, Saturday. The outgoing stewards of Gönpa Gang, Sister Palzang Lhamo and Sister Lagdzom, have made the property transfer. The items received by the incoming stewards, Sister Lhencam and Sister Norzang are as follows:

Oil to last nine days
Butter equal in weight to 1.5 zo ba of barley
32 zo ba of barley
28 rupees each

Furthermore,
7 rupees – this is the money of the convent community.
A half-tin [of oil or butter]

The outgoing stewards have increased the barley by 2 zo ba.

Furthermore, [they have added]
1 ṭam; this one ṭam has been given (as an investment) to Karma of the Four-Pillared House.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 26PS

Date: Iron Ox year (1841; recte 1901 [Sch])
Lines: 6
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Transfer of responsibility and property between stewards.

Transliteration
1. § lcags glang zla 4 pa’i nyin 5 res za 3 pa’i nyin | goon (gon po) gang gi daṃ
2.  sdoṃ gnyis po jo mo sde chen dang | jo mo lhan byaṃ gnyis nas ’phogs rgyab pa la
3.  daṃ sdoṃ bsaṃ pa joo (jo mo) dkar rkyang lha mo dang | joo (jo mo) dkar bzang gnyi la phogs ’byung
4.  ’dzin | mar khu chos smen zhags gu ’byung | mar bzo ba phyed sdo ’byung | *
5.  nas zo ba 33 ’byung | dkar [rkyang] lho (lha mo) la dngul — 32 | joo (jo mo) dkar bzang la dngul — 32
6. hab sprin 1 ’byung | de daṃ bkri (bkra shi) | *dmar ’tshab la dmar khu ’byung |

Translation
Iron Ox year (1901), 4th (recte 3rd) month, 5th day, Tuesday. The two outgoing stewards, Sister Dechen and Sister Lhenjam, have undertaken a transfer of property, and the incoming stewards, Sister Karkyang Lhamo and Sister Karzang have received the following items:

Oil that will fuel butterlamps for nine days
Butter equal in weight to 1.5 zo ba of barley
* Oil was received instead of butter
33 zo ba of barley
32 rupees for Karzang Lhamo
32 rupees for Sister Karzang
One half-tin [of oil or butter]

Blessings.

Commentary
Since the day (Tuesday) is provided, the Iron Ox year in question appears to correspond to 1841 (Sch). However, the property-transfer for the year 1841 is given in a different document with two other pairs of outgoing and incoming stewards. In almost all cases, property-transfers take place in the third month, not the fourth as stated here. Substituting the third for the fourth month in the present case gives a date of 1901, exactly one sexegenary cycle later. The fact that no other document records a property-transfer for 1901 supports the likelihood that the month was noted incorrectly in the document, and that 1901 is the correct year.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 27PS

Date: Wood Snake (1905 [Sch])
Lines: 5
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Transfer of responsibility and property between stewards.

Transliteration
1.  shing sbrul zla 4 pa’i tshe 8 res za 1 nyin | sgon gang gis ldo sdoṃ gnying spa jo mo kar zang dang |
2.  kar byung lha mos nyis nas | phogs {1S} rgyab spa la do sdaṃ saṃ spa jo mo su rnaṃ bu gris
3. joo (jo mo) ldaṃ cod gnyis la phogs byung dzin | mar gu chos smen zhags gu byung | mar zo ba
4. phyed sdo ’byung | nas zos ba 36 byung | dngul 32 | 32 ’byung | ldis byo mo gis dngul yin |
5.  ha spring cig byung |

Emendations
1. tshes 8 res gza’; do dam snying pa 2. phog byung ’dzin; mar khu mchod me zhag dgu 4. phye do byung; nas zo ba; ’di jo mo’i dngul; half-tin gcig

Translation
Wood Snake year (1905 [Sch]), 4th month, 8th day, Sunday. The outgoing stewards of Gönpa Gang, Sister Karzang and Karjung Lhamo have undertaken a transfer of property. The incoming stewards, Sister Sonam Butrig and Sister Damcö, have received the following items:

Oil to fuel votive lamps for nine days
Butter equal in weight to 1.5 zo ba of barley
36 zo ba of barley
32 rupees: this is the nuns’ money
One half-tin [of oil or butter]

 

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 28PS

Date: Water Snake (1833 [Sch])
Lines: 6
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Transfer of responsibility and property between stewards, with notification of items outstanding.

Transliteration
Part 1
1.  § chu ’brul zla ba 3 pa’i mtshe 24 res za zla ba la | gon spa sgang sgi sdo raṃ spa mtshug ’jo mo mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) nas | sdo raṃ spa bsaṃ spa jo mo rti^n (rtan dzin)
2. mchos ’dzoṃs dang ’jo mo karma mchos ’dzoṃs 2 kyi lags ’du ’bru bod khal 17 (?) dang nas zo 6 slebs dgos yod pa’i ’dzin | zla ba 6 pa’i nang ’du sma
3. slebs mtshe ’jo mo mkhro’i (mkha gro’i) thogs la khel rten yin | gong 1S =i nas ’bru ’bod khal 6 sleb ’byung |

Part 2
1. § chu ’brul zla ba 3 pa’i mtshe 24 res za zla ba la | gon spa sgang sgi sdo raṃs snying spa ’tshug ’jo mo mkhro (mkha’ ’gro) nas phogs skrod nas ’bod khal lnga
2. dang rgyabs res ’bod khal snga sdoṃ dkar snag snyis nas | ’bod khal 10 sdo raṃs bsaṃ spa jo mo rti^n (rtan ’dzin) mchos ’dzoṃs dang ’jo mo dkar ma
3. mchos ’dzoṃs snyis kyis lags ’du ’byung pa’i ’dzin |  §    jo mo ri^n (rig ’dzin) mchos ’dzoṃ dang phur spa zang mo 2 la dngul 7 song |

Emendations
Part 1
1. chu sbrul; tshes 24 res gza’; dgon pa gang gi do dam pa; do dam pa sampa (SMT < gsar pa) 2. lag tu; sleb dgos 2-3. ma sleb tshe; sleb byung

Part 2
1. chu sbrul; tshes 24 res gza’; dgon pa sgang gi do dam rnying pa; phog sprad bod 2. khal lnga bsdoms dkar nag gnyis; bod khal; do dam pa sampa (SMT < gsar pa) 3. lag tu byung

Translation
Part 1
Water Snake year (1833), 3rd month, 24th day, Monday. This is a testimony (’dzin) that the incoming stewards of Gönpa Gang, Sister Tenzin Chödzom and Sister Karma Chödzom should receive 17 bod khal of grain and 6 zo ba of barley from the [outgoing] steward, Sister Khandro of Tshug. If it has not arrived by the 6th month, Sister Khandro will be held responsible (’khel rten). 6 bod khal of grain have been received from — (lacuna).

Part 2
Water Snake year (1833), 3rd month, 24th day, Monday. The outgoing steward of Gönpa Gang, Sister Khandro of Tshug, has carried out a transfer of property. The incoming stewards, Sister Tenzin Chödzom and Sister Karma Chödzom, have received 5 bod khal of barley and 5 bod khal of buckwheat, altogether 10 bod khal consisting of ‘white’ (barley) and ‘black’ (buckwheat). 7 rupees have been loaned (lit. have gone) to Sister Rigdzin Chödzom and Phurpa Zangmo.

Commentary
The two parts of this document are written in the same hand and bear the same date. It would appear that the two outgoing stewards were unable to pay the full amount that they were required to transfer to the incoming stewards, but made good the outstanding items later in the course of the same day.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 29a

Date: Iron Tiger (1890)
Lines: 18
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs
Remarks: Five seal impressions, representing the signatories, three witnesses and the scribe.

Summary
Revised rules of the convent. The witnesses include Kuzhab Zangdor and Kuzhab Khamsum, two prominent nobles of Baragaon.

Transliteration
Verso
§ gon pa gang gi chod tshig yie (yi ge) ’dri pa’ gyaṃ ’gya

Recto
1. lcags stags zla ba dang po’i tshes nyi shu la | dgon pa gang gi byos ste yul kha tshang ma | sngon khyun star kyi chod tshigs snang ’byung la sgrigs yal

2. par rten nas byesu (byes su) byos ste tshang ma kha chaṃ bros thogs nas | sngar byas gyab skyur dang sdar byas sdong len byas nas chod tshigs yieg (yi ge) bris don la | don

3. rtsa dgon pa gang gi srol | zla ba cu (or {cu}?) gnyis pa’i tshes cu gsuṃ nas | tshes nyer snga thub byo mo gang spyod | zhags res ma phyags pa dgon

4. pa ru rdzoṃ rgyu dang | zla ba dang po’i tshes gcig (?) | nas tshe co brgyad thub yang byo mo gang yod nyin res ma chags pa dzom brgyu dang | zla ba gsuṃ

5. ba’i tshes rnaṃ khang nas | zla ba zhi ba’i tshes co snga thub gye za yod pha la | sde thub (or nub?) kyang mdzoṃ brgyu dang | dgong don gsuṃ la byo mo tshang

6. ma cha gnas byas nas | cho ga naṃ zin bar dzoṃ nas sdad brgyu dang | gal bsrid cho ga naṃ zin bar ma sdad ba | zu bu stens (sten nas) yul la logs

7. nas song ba shar tshes | byos ste la dgrigs chad nyin res la zo ba phed phed byang brgyu chod ba yin | byo mo zhal ’bros rnaṃ kyang zaṃ ba

8. chu yi naṃ khyer bar | dgon pa ru dzoṃ bdu pheb rgyu dang | zaṃ ba naṃ yod bar du | bres mo rnaṃ kyang sma pheb phyin | dgrigs chad nyin res

9. la dgong star byang brgyu chod ba yin | ma zad byo mo tshang ma | byesu (byes su) byo sar gang yod gang byung tshang ma kyang | mi yi sna ma la song

10. zhing khyo ka khra ken ’byung na | dpon dgon gnyis la | sngar khyun gstar kyi mar logs byed brgyu dang | khyo kha khra ken la ma sdad

11. pa nyes khrul ’byung ba rnaṃ tshang ma | yar logs man ba mar logs byed dbang med | gal sris yar logs ma byas ba | byo man skya man

12. la sdad ba shar tshes | dgong dpon po la sngon khyun star kyi nyes chad kyi kha la (or khal?) bha dngul nyi cu rtsa zhi dang | dgon pa la sngon khyun kyi

13. shags ba’i khar grigs chad dngul bdrugs byang phyogs bzhus ba byo mo gang yod slosu (slos su) slang sem thad kyi chod brgya bris nas sas brgyab ba | gan zhon

14. tshang mi the lags kor kyi rtags the bo | (seal) dgong staṃ tshang ma chod tshigs byas nas chod brgya bris mi cha spang stab shil —

15. stabs shil

16 (seal) skags sku zhab khaṃ suṃ —1 .                           (seal) skags bri ṭha spen pa tshe ring—1

17. (seal) sdzar sku zhab zang sdor —1                             (seal) yigs bris dang sdzong tshe dbang srid dar—1

18. sted tshug snyi kyi tsha chus gla mo thags chod pa’i sang sngar star kyi tho ma ’du yul 2 kyi rgan ba ma tshogs snaṃ blaṃ (bla ma) yul mi tshang ma yang [1S]


Emendations
Verso
bris pa’i gan rgya

Recto
1. lcags stag; jo sde yul; sngon khyun (rgyun) ltar; chod tshig gnang 2. rjes su jo sde tshang ma; kha ’chams thog; rgyab skyur dang da (?) byas gdong len; chod tshig; ’bri don 3. bcu gnyis; bcu gsum; lnga thug jo mo; zhag re ma chags pa  4. ’dzom rgyu; tshes bco brgyad thug; jo mo gang; rdzom rgyu dang 5. tshes nam gang; bzhi pa’i tshes bco lnga thug dge rtsa; gong don; jo mo tshang 6. ’cha’ gnas; ’dzom nas sdod rgyu; gzugs po bstan nas; yul la log 7. shar tshe; jo sde sgrigs chad; phe phe (SMT < phyed phyed) sbyong rgyu; jo mo zhal bgres rnams 8. nam ’khyer; ’dzom du phebs rgyu; bgres mo rnams; ma phebs; sgrigs chad nyin re 9. gong ltar sbyong rgyu; jo mo tshang; rjes su jo sar; mna’ ma 10. ’phrad mkhan; sngar khyun (SMT < rgyun) ltar; mar log; khyo ga ‘phrad mkhan la ma bsdad 11. nyes ’khrul; rnams tshang; yar log mana (SMT < ma gtogs); mar log; gal srid yar log; jo min skya min 12. sdod pa shar tshe; gong dpon; sngon khyun ltar; ’ba’ dngul nyi shu rtsa bzhi 13. bshags pa; sgrigs chad dngul drug; sbyangs chog zhus pa jo mo; blos slangs sems ’thad; chod rgya bris; sāhī brgyab; rgan gzhon 14. tshang mas the lag skor; gong gtam; chod tshig; chod rgya ’bri mi cha dpang tapsil 18. gleng mo thag chod


Translation
Iron Tiger year (1890), 1st month, 20th day. Since the rules contained in the document of agreement between the convent of Gönpa Gang and the community of Tshug had become obsolete (yal), there was a plenary meeting of the convent’s members leading to an agreement that has discontinued past practice and adopted new procedures.

Concerning the rules (srol) of the convent. From the 13th to the 25th days of the 12th month, all nuns must assemble in the nunnery without missing a single day.

From the 1st to the 18th days of the first month, however many nuns there are should assemble in the convent without missing a day.

From the last day of the third month to 15th day of the fourth month there is the “Root of Virtue” ceremony (gye za < dge rtsa), and they should assemble at that time too.

All nuns should act in accordance with these three prescriptions, and they must remain until the end of each of the ceremonies. If anyone leaves before the ceremony is over, merely making an appearance (lit. ‘showing her body’) before returning to the village, in accordance with the convent’s rules she shall pay half a zo ba [of barley] for each day of absence. Until such time as the bridge has been swept away by the river [as the water rises in summer], elderly nuns too shall come to assemble in the convent. If any elderly nun fails to come while the bridge is still in place, according to the convent’s rules she shall pay the fine specified above.

Furthermore, if it should happen that any of the nuns marries and takes a husband, she shall perform a “returning down” before both the lord and the convent. If anyone should encounter a husband and not live with him but should commit a fault [by having a child], she may perform only a “returning up”, not a “returning down”. If she does not do a “returning up”, but should live as a half-nun half-laywoman, she shall, in accordance with past custom, pay a fine of 24 rupees to the lord, and in addition to making a confession at the convent shall pay it a fine of 6 rupees. All the nuns freely and willingly confirm this by placing a mark: a seal (lit. thumbprint) to signify that the document has been passed from hand to hand among old and young alike. (seal) Here follows a list of the witnesses to this agreement and the scribe who wrote it:

(seal) Kuzhab Khamsum                          (seal) Ṭiṭha Penba Tshering of Kag
(seal) Kuzhab Zangdor of Dzar                (seal) The scribe, Tshewang Hridar of Dangkardzong

Note
The last line, not translated here, concerns a matter unrelated to the rest of the document. The communities of Te and Tshug have apparently had a disagreement (gla mo < gleng mo) about the use of the salina located upstream of both villages, a source of salt to which by tradition they have equal rights. The two communities have taken advantage of the presence, at this meeting, of the two nobles, the lamas of Tshognam, and their own members to arrive at a settlement to the dispute.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 29b

See HMA/KCh/Tib/ 29a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 31

Date: Wood Pig year (1935–1936)
Lines: 13
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs
Remarks: Seal on last line containing the letter cha

Summary
Order from the ruler of Baragon to the lama of Künzang Chöling to act like his illustrious predecessors, such as Rig ’dzin Tshe dbang nor bu, and to desist from mistreating the nuns. The nuns in turn are enjoined to observe discipline and to obey their lama.

Transliteration

1. [±13S] rnaṃs la Zphyags rtags gnang don la | sngon {1S} ba gang zer ba de | khyad du phag

2. [±13S] Zme me gar ’bang | rig ’dzin tshes dbang nor bu bcas kyi khyad du phag

3. [±18S] gi jo mo r[n]aṃ  la =i== r[n]ṃ[s] ba mang bar rten ==i=

4. ’gyu rkyen las | sku zhabsu (zhabs su) skyi sdug rim du zhu ’bar rten | drgos Zphyags daṃ gnang pa yin pa yin pas nges ’bar gyi (be cognisant of this order!) | zhes sngon

5. blaṃ (bla ma) bde rnaṃs kyi mdzad khyabs shin tu | da ’cha’ang blaṃ (bla ma) dan rim shin tu sngon kyi blaṃ (bla ma) de rnaṃ kyi dzad ’byus shin mdzad ba ma gtogs | skyig zhur

6. kha ngan kyi dgra klang [2S] med bas ma bzad sto med kyi las dang | khrim med dbang yod sogs blaṃ (bla ma) rnaṃs nas gnang kyu me yong ma 2-3S?

7. zad jo mo rnaṃs nas kyang rang rig chos la zhug ba yin ’dug bas | sngon blaṃ (bla ma) gong ma rnaṃs la Zzhabs rtogs byi ltar ’bul yod shin |

8. da ’cha’ang bla ma bdan rim =in du snga srol shin kyi Zzhabs gtogs ’bul gos dang | de min jo mos phyogs nas snga srol shin kyi Zzhabs

9. ltog sog dang | rang gjag sngon dus bzhin chos la yang bdag ma ’bul na shin du mi yong pas bde lugs nges ba gyi gyi | nyes med khrim me[d]

10. dbang yod sogs | jo mo bde rnaṃs kyi thog tu ’jaṃs skyong sogs dang sngon kyi blaṃ (bla ma) de rnaṃs kyi bka’ khrim sme gnang khar | nyes med lus thog bskyig zhur brgyag ba ’byung tshes

11. jo mo de rnaṃs la res ba spu rtsaṃs yang ’byed kyu me yong bas | bde lugs thugs ’jags mdzod | ’gal bsid bde ltar bla ma rnaṃs la sngo zhus ’bul nas bde las

12. ’gal ba blaṃ (bla ma) rnaṃs nas jo mo rnaṃs kyi thog tu nyes med snga srol las ’gal ba’i bya ba mdzad phyin ..... bha dngul bstong bcig yong bas bde lugs ’jags ba ’dzod |

13. bzhes go ’bar shing mo phags lo zla ba 9 pa’i tshes 13 la bris (seal, four lobes with cha in centre) |

Emendations
4. rgyu rkyen; zhu bar rten | dgos; phyag dam; nges par gyis 5. mdzad khyab bzhin du; gdan rim bzhin du; mdzad jus bzhin; ’khyig zhur (SMT < bzhu) 6. dralang (SMT < sgra lhang?); zas lto med; khrims med; gnang rgyu mi yong 7. rang rigs chos la zhugs; zhabs tog ji ’bul yod bzhin 8. gdan rim bzhin du; snga srol bzhin gyi zhabs tog ’bul dgos dang 9. tog sogs; rang ’jags; de lugs nges pa gyis gyis; khrims med 10. de rnams; ’jam skyong; bka’ khrims mi gnang; ’khyig zhur (SMT < gzhu); ’byung tshe 11. re ba spu tsam yang byed rgyu mi; de lugs; gal srid de ltar; ngo zhu phul nas de; 12. ’ba’ dngul stong gcig; ’jags pa mdzod; zhes go bar; phag lo

Translation
A sealed document issued to the — lacuna. (The next two lines are badly damaged, but a reference to “the revered [lit. ‘grandfather’] Gar ’bang and Rig ’dzin tshe dbang nor bu, exceptionally exalted —” appears at the end of line 2.)

As a consequence of — [lacuna]. Following a series of representations to the sKu zhabs, we have issued this necessary sealed document: be cognisant of it! Like the vast deeds (mdzad khyabs) of these lamas of the past, so too should you act only in the manner of those past lamas in the abbatial line, in accordance with their codes of conduct: the lamas may not do such things as tie up the nuns and flog them, or shout abuse at them, or make them work without food or act in an unrestrained and overbearing way.  Furthermore, the nuns in turn should behave according to the rules, and in the same way that they revered the lamas of the past, so too should they show reverence now, just as they did to the lamas of former times. Otherwise, if they fail to show reverence such as they did in the past, and do not act in accordance with religious principles, that is highly inappropriate; therefore, act accordingly! If the lama should behave towards the nuns in a way other than the kindly protectiveness shown by the lamas in the past mentioned above, but punish them by tying them up and whipping them when they have done nothing wrong, or doing to them things that are are in transgression of past tradition, then there is no hope at all (? res ba spu tsam yang byed rgyu me yong). Bear this in mind! If the nuns have pleaded their innocence (sngo zhu ’bul) to the lama, and, instead of accepting this he transgresses [the rules] and treats them in violation of past custom, there shall be a fine of 1000 rupees. This must be understood.

Wood Pig year (1935–1936), 9th month, 13th day.

Commentary
The spiritual mentor of Künzang Chöling was its lama. The first in this succession was Kun bzang klong yangs himself, who accepted an invitation to preside over the religious community of Gönpa Gang even before he had built his own temple and convent on the site. After the words “exceptionally eminent” in this document there is a lacuna of half a line (some thirteen syllables) followed by the names “The reverend Garwang and Rigdzin Tshewang Norbu”. The latter (1698–1755) is a very well-known religious figure and historian from eastern Tibet who is known to have spent time in Künzang Chöling (Ehrhard 2013: 248), and it is entirely possible that he did occupy the role of spiritual mentor in the 18th century. The “reverend Garwang” could possibly be a reference to Garwang Dorje (1640–1685), also a renowned figure from the borderlands—specificaly, Nubri—who was known as “the Treasure-discoverer of Western Tibet (mNga’ ris gter bton), from whom Kun bzang klong yangs received teachings and various treasures. However, since he was four years senior to Kun bzang klong yangs—who received teachings from him—and predeceased him by twelve years he cannot have been its lama, and there is no record of his visiting the convent. The title “reverend” here translates the term mes mes. Literally “grandfather”, the term is still widely used in Mustang to designate local lamas, whatever their age. Garwang Tshokye (gar dbang mtsho skyes) was one of the names that Kun bzang klong yangs had proposed for the reincarnation of Orgyan Zangpo, whose name after his enthronement at Kutshab Ternga was Künzang Yeshe. It is possible that a century or so after his death he was still remembered by a more familiar local appellation. Coming as it does in a document issued by the ruler of Baragaon the name would be doubly appropriate, since the lama was the nephew of one of his direct ancestors.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 32

Date: Fire Snake (1857 or 1917)
Lines: 7
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
List of fines paid by nuns for various misdemeanours, possibly all for lateness.

Transliteration
1. § {slang lo la} me brul la gon ba gang gi byo mo snaṃs zhags du la sla ma (one redundant la or sla) snon pa’i chad pa zin mi (people who have been caught to pay fines) thogs kod pa

2. la thogs smar lo da slang lo la byo mo tshe dbang brol mo dang nyi ma bro ma — 2 laṃ — 1 las {3S}

3. {=ng spen pa | phyos mdzoṃ ’bu khrid nga dbang gsuṃ snas chad pa laṃ — 3 1S di lo 1S}

4. {1S la spen pa mtsho mo la chad pa laṃ — 3 | di lo zhu ma la  spen pa chogs mdzoṃs la dngul} laṃ — 1S las

5. {1S} {gsnyis ’byo mo chad pa nyid ma grol ma la laṃ — 1S | byo mo nga dbang la lo gro skam}

6. {dngul — 3 byo mo bu khrigs la dngul — 3 | byo mo oyan (o rgyan) zang mo la}

7. {dngul — 1} |

Emendations
1. dgon pa sgang gi jo mo rnams zhag dus la {sla} ma gnon; tho bkod pa 2. thog mar lo rtags glang; jo mo 4. ’di lo gzhug ma 5. gnyis jo mo

Translation
Ox year. Fire snake year. A list of those nuns from Gönpa Gang who have been apprehended [and made] to pay fines for lateness. First, in the Ox year:

2. Sister Tshewang Drolmo and Nyima Droma – 2 ṭam outstanding
3. [—] Pemba, Chogdzom Butri and Ngawang: 3 ṭam

This year, Pemba Tshomo: 3 ṭam

The following year,

Pemba Chogdzom: 1 ṭam outstanding
[—] two, Sister Nyima Drolma – (illegible) ṭam
Sister Ngawang (illegible): 3 rupees
Sister Butri – 3 rupees
Sister Orgyan Zangmo – 1 rupee

Note
Throughout the document the retroflex t (ta log) in ṭam has been written as l and is accordingly transcribed as such.


HMA/KCh/Tib/ 33

Date: none given, but the issuer, Candra Bhir, appears in several documents from the mid-late nineteenth century (see commentary).
Lines: 9
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Notification by the ruler of Baragaon, Candra Bhir, that a mendacious nun is to be fined.

Transliteration

1. mi rjed bsku bzhabs rtsandha ’bhir rtsos bskuṃ mjod 2 bsku drung nas

2. nyes ’char tshugs jo

3. mo rdoe (rdo rje) gru ma la ’phyags stam snang ’don la | sngon lar ’phan gon spa gang gi bgrigs

4. ’chad srol yod ba la | ’di don mkhyed nas spon bo’i bka’ staṃ ’pheb ’byung zer nas dbyo

5. stam byas nas jos stes la gong bzhus byas nas spon dun ’byor bdu ma yong ba

6. bskor bdu ’khyed jo mo rdoe gro ma nas mi bskus dbyo staṃ byas nas | zhag 3 bzhi yul

7. bdu sdad nas byo mo’i grig ma gyugs ba’i bskor | des don {2S} dgon ba’i grigs srol/khrim

8. gang phog yang ster lugs byes | sma ster tshes bka’ mkhrim nas an srol nyes

9. ’chad khel yong bas nges bha byeed (byed byed) | bzhes dgos byed ’phyags rdaṃ zla pa 4 pa’i tshes 3 nyin phul

10. dges (seal)

Emendations
1. mi rje sku zhabs; gtsos sku mched 2 sku drung 2. nye char 3. phyag dam gnang don; phan dgon pa sgang gi sgrig 4. bcad srol; khyed nas dpon po’i bka’ tham phebs byung zer nas g.yo 5. gtam byas; jo sde la dgongs zhu; dpon mdun ‘byor du ma 6. skor du khyed; mi dgos (?) g.yo gtam 6. di bsdad nas jo mo’i sgrigs ma rgyug pa’i skor | de’i don | sgrigs 7. lugs byed; ma ster tshe bka’ khrims nas ain 8. chad ’khel; nges pa byed | zhes dgos byed phyag dam |

Translation
From the two brothers, foremost of whom is the lord of men Kuzhab Candra Bir. Concerning the recent issue of a sealed document to the nun from [the village of] Tshug named Dorje Drolma. From the past and also later on, Gönpa Gang has had a set of religious rules, and as regards these, you stated falsely that you had received an official order from the lord. On these grounds you requested leave of absence from the convent but then did not come to see the lord, and you therefore told an outright lie: you actually stayed in your village for three or four days, failing to observe the rules of the convent. You shall accept whatever fine is imposed on you by the convent’s rules; and if you fail to pay, you will be punished by the law. Understand this! This important sealed document has been issued on the 3rd day of the 4th month.

Commentary
Candra Bir appears in several other documents from Baragaon: the investigation of a property dispute from 1871 (HMA/LTshognam/Tib/06); a letter issued by the community of Kag in 1878 (HMA/Te/Tib/38); an open letter that he himself wrote to the communities of Baragaon in 1870 (HMA/Te/Tib/65); a list of dukes of Baragaon from 1915 (HMA/Baragaon/Tib/35)

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 34

Date: none given, late 19th century
Lines: 4
Script: tshugs


Summary
Intervention by a ruler of Baragaon to compel a nun to pay fifteen years’ worth of interest on a loan from Gönpa Gang.


Transliteration

1. § khri thogs sku zhabs zil non nas | gted pa’i jo mo chos ’tsho mo la yi ge nges dgos | nye ’char | de
2. kha’i (?) khyod rang rnams kyi dgon pa sgang gi mchod pa’i sbyor ’jags dngul gang chod jo mo chos ’tsho mo la yod pa la lo bco
3. lnga dngul rgyas ma ster ’dug pas de’i rgyu gang la brten nas da bar bor bas | da lta/bar yang lo bco lnga po’i bed tshangs ’grigs ma
4. ster na mi thus pa dang | gzhan skad cha byed dgos yod na (if there is anything do be discussed about this come and see me) jo mo rang dpon po’i sku mdun du shog | zhes zla 5 pa’i tshes 21 la song (seal)

Emendations
1. nye char 3. ngul skyed; tshang ’grig 4. mi ’thus

Translation
From the Kuzhab Zilnön. The Tepa nun Chö Tshomo must be made to understand clearly the content of this letter. Recently, Sister Chö Tshomo had 1 rupee from the endowment fund of your nunnery, Gönpa Gang, but had failed to pay the interest over the course of 15 years. If she fails now to pay in full the 15 years’ worth of interest, this will be unacceptable. If there is anything further to be discussed on this the nun herself should come and see me. Fifth month, 21st day.

Note
Kuzhab Zilnön appears in several documents from the second half of the 19th century. One of these is an inheritance dispute with his brother from 1867 (Tibetan Sources 4, HMA/Bargaon/Tib/47); in another, undated document named in an undated document as the founder of an important festival in Dzar (Ramble 2015: 200).  Karu Drubwang Tenzin Rinchen, a Bonpo lama from Khams (1801–1860) who spent several years in Mustang and Dolpo, mentions Kuzhab Zilnön Namgyal as a patron of his in 1834 (Autobiography of dKar ru, p. 177).

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 35

Date: Water Ox (1913)
Lines: 3
Script: ’khyug

Summary
A declaration by two brothers that they will not make offerings in Gönpa Gang on pain of paying a fine.

Transliteration
1. § chu glang bzla pa 12 pa’i tshes 18 res sa ’phur pa’i nyin | mgon po gangs ’du chos
2. man/mas dang yon chos ’phul sa med | ga se ’phul sna spon spangs ’du dngul 24 ’phul skyangs yin gzer pa
3. chos bzang spun gnyis gis slo seṃs rang the gis rtags X X

Emendations
1. zla ba; re gza’ phur; dgon pa sgang du; 2. me dang yon chab; gal srid ’phul na dpon ’bangs du; rkyang yin zer 3. blo sems rang ’thad

Translation
Water Ox year, 12th month, 18th day, Thursday. There shall be no lighting of butter lamps or making water offerings; if we do make such offerings, we shall certainly pay 24 rupees to the lord and the subjects. Chözang and his brother set their marks of their own free will.

Commentary
The circumstances in which this document might have been written are not at all clear. The likeliest explanation is that the two brothers had a dispute with the convent and drew up this document as a declaration that they had decided to boycott it on pain of paying a self-imposed fine.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 36a

Date: none given
Lines: 13
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Testimony by a nun of Tshug concerning the refusal of the nuns of Te to attend ceremonies in Gönpa Gang.

Transliteration
1. § bzla’ se bzla’ kyis tshe brgyad la gnyer ma gnyis ’chu bab rnaṃ la bri ru ’phebs nas bsungs | tshe bcu ’thug la ’rdi ru ’phebs bslabs

2. nas te gsung pa yin | gsal bya bslabs las gsung pa yin | tshe bcu la te pa’i ’jo mo ’phebs nas te bzhus pa yin ’slebs du ma snyan |

3. ’tshe bcuis (bcu gnyis) la ’jo mo ’dz[oṃ] sa nga ’dzoms pa yin | ’chu bab ma ’thob gnas na (na na) | skur kur kyi bzhag byed ’chogs gnas pa yin | ’tshe bcu brton du shog

4. nas pa yin | ma yong | ’tshe gcuigs (gcu gcigs) la brton las (le = SMT song; go bring them out) gnas pa yin | bde la ma yong | btshe bcuis (bcu gnyis) la brton las gchog pa yin |

5. de la yang ma yong | gsuṃ bchogs la bchod pa rton (gtong – do the ceremony) las gnas pa yin | bde la ma yong | btshe bcu[is] la 1S ’dzo kyis ’ton du ma yongs | btshe bcu

6. ’jo ma nyi ma ’grol mas las ma gsuṃ nas pa yin ma bston only need one jomo to do it, this was the Tepas’ turn | gsuṃ naṃ bu dri [presumably of Tshug] kyis bston pa yin | bzla’ ba ’chod ’dzoṃ kyis las ma gsuṃ bos pa yin |

7. ’jo ma kun ’dzom (Tepa nun) kyi btshe bcu bton du ma yong | bskor snyer ma (All they do is light butterlamps) byang chub dpal mo dang spyi pa [Takes care of fooding] pad ma ’chos ’dzin gnyis kyis bte pa’i ’jo

8. ma lan te brgyad bos pa yin | ’phebs du ma snyan yin | bste pa’i rgan pa la lan rte gsuṃ bzhus pa yin | rte pa’i rgan pa’i bzhal dgod (= zhal bkod)

9. brte pa’i ’jo mo la rgan pa’i bzhal dgod la ’jo ma la mgon la ’phebs na ’phebs gnas [1S] ma ’th[u?]b | ±4S

10. bchags na bchags gnas ste ma ’thugs gnas rte rgan pa’i bzhal dgod yin | jo (?) ma nyi ma kyis ’grol mi | bte pa’i ’jo ma

11. ’dzom * byed pa yin | ’tshugs pa’i ’jo ma la byang chu dpal mo zla kyu byed |

12. *{zla rgyab slabs bte | ’jo ma ’phebs du ma snyan |} bzla’ ba dbang dang bchos ni dbang mo yees (ye shes) ’grol ma nor ’dzin dbang mi khong mi

13. ’zhi’i te pa’i ’jo mo la | lan (=las) ’dzin ’phogs rgan rnaṃ la ’phebs gnas te bzhus pa yin | lags sgan ’gal pa’i yin | ’pheb ma snyan |


Emendations

1. dasāĩ zla’i tshes; chu babs rnams la ’dri ru phebs ne (< SMT mnas) song; tshes bcu thug la ’di ru pheb lab 2. nere (SMT < mnas te) gsungs


Translation
On the eighth day of the Dasain month, the two stewards (gnyer ma) told [me?] to go and summon (lit. ask) the members of the community (chu ’bab) [to come to attend the ceremony]. They told me to tell them to come here by the 10th day; go (las < SMT le) and give them this message, they said. “Nuns of Te, you must come on the 10th day” I said, but they would not listen. On the 12th day we nuns gathered at the assembly place. [It was said], If we did not get that part of the community (? ’chu bab ma ’thob) to come, we should try to persuade them gently (skur skur < mgo skor). “Come and perform the Tenth-day Ceremony,” we told them, but they did not come. “Do the [part of the ceremony] that has to be done on the 11th day,” we told them. But they still did not come. “It will be all right if you do it on the 12th day,” we said, but still they did not come. We told Sumchog to do the ceremony, but she did not come. On the 10th day they did not come to perform the (? ’dzo kyis). On the 10th day Sister Nyima Drolma told them three times, but she did not do it, and so Sonam Butrig [of Tshug] did it. Dawa Chödzom called them three times, but Sister Kundzom [of Te] did not come to do the ceremony. The dkon gnyer ma Jangchub Palmo and the sPyi pa Pema Chödzin summoned the nuns of Te eight times, but they did not obey. They asked the headmen of Te eight times. The order (zhal bkod) issued by the headmen of Te was that the nuns could go to the convent if they wished, but that they could not tell them (? gnas ma ’thub). (lacuna) This was the command of the headmen. Sister Nyima … *summoned the nuns of Te to assemble, but they did not listen. To the nuns of Tshug… (?). To the four nuns of Te, Dawa Ang[mo], Chönyi Angmo, Yeshe Drolma and Nordzing Angmo, we said, “you should come and perform the duties that it is your turn to undertake.” But they are deficient in their duties, and did not agree to come.

Commentary
This document is one of several relating to the dispute that culminated in the nuns of Te abandoning their association with Gönpa Gang to go to Upper Tshognam. This particular document appears to relate the experience of one of the nuns of Tshug in the effort to keep the sisterhood intact. One interesting feature of the text is that it attempts, more than any other in the archive, to reproduce the spoken dialect of South Mustang. These include the use of the word gnas, which represents the perfective of the SMT verb na, meaning to say (< Tib. mna’), and gnas te, clearly representing nere, the past participle of the same verb, that is used liberally in the context of spoken narrative.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 36b

See HMA/KCh/Tib/ 36a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 37a

Date: Water Hare (1903)
Lines: 19
Script: ’khyug

Summary
Te’s nuns turned up late to a ceremony at Künzang Chöling, prostrated in front of the Maitreya image and announced that they would no longer be members of the convent. They also rejected an invitation to drink beer with their fellows and to participate in a funeral lunch for a past dbu mdzad. They declare that they are now affiliated to Tshognam temple. This letter requests the sku zhabs to force them to return. The fiscal status of Künzang Chöling is also mentioned.

Transliteration
1. § slo smad a smal bka’ tsar bdu | rted byo mo u tshad nyi ma 1 | u tshad stan mchos ’dzom 1 | byo mo nyi ma chung bha 1 | byo mo dpal zangs |

2.  yees (ye shes) mchos dzom1 | gsuṃ phyogs grol ma 1 | dngruosb (dngos grub) ang mo 1 | kho po mi ngos bdun nas ’khrim med dbang yod byes pa’i ming gsu | ngos dgon gang

3.  byo mo tshugs | tsang li | gya ga yul kho gsuṃ gi byo mo nas/ zod ma khyags pa’i bha rdi i sar bris nas ’phul nying don tsha | sngon dgon 

4. pa gang chags rab nas tshun | sted tshugs 2 | gyags tsang 2 | yul tsho bzhi yis | chu babs gyis mo dgon yin bha la | {1S} sngon pha med gis chags

5. chod pa rnaṃ dang | shi bu rnaṃs gis byor chags smonṃ (smon lam) rnaṃs dang | zla zas gis byor phyags gi smon laṃ rnaṃs | yang skyer bdus bdus gis cho

6. ga smonṃ (smon lam) gang yod pa la | byo mo tshang ma dzoṃs nas smon laṃ gsung phyogs rnang dgos bha la | chu yos zla 9 pa’i tshe rnaṃ khang nyin | zla zas

7. gis smonṃ (smon lam) yin bha la | ’di nyin dang ma sted byo mo rnaṃs smonṃ (smon lam) la shogs zer nas sda stang mi tshug yees (ye shes) mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) stang nas | sted byo mo

8. rnam | gho skyam gro la ma non bar | bzhugs bsam bha lhun grub la sleb byung pa | sted byo mo rnaṃs nas | monṃ (mon lam) gang po skyor zin

9. nas | khyod byoo (byo mo) rnaṃs ma yong bar spyi la gor bha yin zer bdus | kho po rnaṃs nas skang kyer la phyags gsuṃ 3 ’phul nas byaṃ

10. bha chen por/po pad ma ’on bar skes bsrung chen mo rnaṃs sted gis byo mo rnaṃs nyi ma ’di ring nas phan | dgong ba bzhu ba yin bzer

11. bdugs pas | snyed byo mo nas chab kha zhes zhes chab kha bzhus bdus | kho po sted byo mo rnaṃs nas chang yang thung bdu ma

12. nyen bar | skad bra dzin sding che bzhin logs song pas | byes gsu u tshad spen khris (khra shis) zang mo zlas bdus | smonṃ (smon lam) skyor bdu shogs

13. zer nas | ngos gis spyi ba sda stang nas skyang yong ma byung | yang ro zan kyal bdu stang nas ro zan skyang nen bdu ma nyen |

14. nyed dgon pa skyang men zer byungs pas | nged dgon gang gis dgon pa la phral babs --- brgyal Zzhab porien (rin po che’i) | gha rdi tsu ma ṇi

15. ’di sogs gis | phral rig rnyaṃ la byang dgos pa’i dgon pa yin pas | da zla kho po rnaṃs nas mi ngan kha grig byas nas | dgon pa saṃ bha

16. tshogs rnaṃs snya dgon spa la bzhugs nas | bdus gis chod pa rnaṃs skyang ston bdug pas | sngon pha med yang gsuṃ nas zung bhis thun

17. tsu ma ṇi | gha sdi sogs gang byung skyang | ngos yul khags bzhi yis byo mo snyaṃ la ’khur dgos bha la | chu yos lo la ngos

18. dgon gang skyur bzhin | tshogs rnaṃ dgon pa la bzhugs me phyogs pas | dgong bka’ ’khrim nas | kho po ghugs spyang rnang nas

19. sngon star chu babs gis dgon pa la | btsugs nas rnang stab yod pa mkhyeen (mkhyen mkhyen) |

Emendations
1. glo smad amāl kacahari; jo mo dbu mdzad 2. khrims med; byed pa’i ming du 3. bzod ma bkyags pa’i badi ijār; snying don rtsa 4. chags rabs; pha mes kyis phyag 5. mchod pa rnams; sbyor ’jags; dasāĩ gyi sbyor ’jags; yang bskyar dus dus kyi 6. gsung chog gnang dgos pa; nam gang nyin | dasāĩ 7. yin pa la; shog zer nas brda gtong mi; btang nas 8. rnams | mgo skyabs ’gro; bsam pa 9. ’gor ba yin zer dus; rkang kyer la phyag 10. bka’ srung chen; dgongs pa zhus pa yin zer 11. ’dug pas; nyed jo; chabka (SMT honorific for chang) bzhes; chabka zhu dus 12. nyan par; skad sgra dzeting; log song; rjes su dbu mdzad; ’das dus; skyor du shog 13. brda’ btang nas kyang; skyel du btang; kyang nen du ma nyan 14. man zer byung; khral ’bab; rgyal zhabs; gaddi cumāni 15. khral rigs mnyam la sbyong; da lta kho; khag dkri byas; dgon pa sampa (SMT < gsar pa) 16. nya (SMT < ya) dgon pa la zhugs nas; dus kyi mchod pa rnams kyang ston ’dug; nas bzung; bhis thun (? see commentary) 17. cumāni | gaddi sogs; byung yang; mnyam la ’khur dgos pa 18. zhugs mi chog pas; gong bka’ khrims; ’gugs ’chang gnang nas 19. sngon ltar; btsugs nas gnang stabs

Translation

To the court of Lower Lo.

These seven nuns of Te: the [former] precentor, Nyima; the [former] precentor Ten Chöndzom; Nyima the Younger; Sister Palzang; Yeshe Chödzom; Sumchog Drölma; Ngödrub Angmo – these individuals who have acted lawlessly and brazenly. We nuns from the three communities of Tshug, Tsele and Gyaga, no longer being able to endure this, we submit this petition (bādi ijhār).

Ever since its foundation, Gönpa Gang has continually been the nunnery of the four communities of Te, Tshug, Gyaga and Tsele: the offerings and ceremonies performed by our forebears; the prayer meetings that have been endowed on behalf of the deceased; for the prayer meeting enabled by the endowments for the Dasain ceremony; and, further, all the periodical rituals and prayers; all the nuns would have to assemble and perform these prayers and rituals.

The 30th day of the 9th month in the Hare year, was the day of the prayers for the Dasain festival. On this day, we first of all sent Yeshe Khandro of Tshug to invite the nuns of Te to come for the prayers. The nuns of Te had not arrived by the Taking of Refuge that begins the ceremony, but came only much later, at the Prayer that Spontaneously Fulfils Wishes (bSam pa lhun grub, with which the ceremony closes): they came only after we had finished reciting all the prayers. We asked them how it was that they had come so late; but they made a triple gesture of reverence without prostrating themselves, and said, “Great Maitreya, Padma ’Od ’bar, protectors of the doctrine! From this day on, we beg to take our leave!” We nuns invited them to sit down with us and to have some beer, but they refused to have any, and went back amid much shouting and yelling.

On a later occasion, when the preceptor Sister Pen Trashi died, we sent our steward to call them to take part in the prayers, they did not come; and when we sent them the “corpse food” [the food that is distributed after the death of an individual], they refused to accept it, saying that they were no longer members of the convent. But Gönpa Gang is the convent for which we have shared fiscal obligations, for which we have to pay the gadi cumāni and other taxes to the government. Now these seven nuns have made an illicit agreement with a new religious establishment, Upper Tshognam. (Line 16) We have to perform the periodical ceremonies, and moreover, we nuns of the four communities have been collectively responsible for whatever [dues] there may be, such as bhis thun, tsu ma ṇi and gha sdi. In the Hare year they abandoned Gönpa Gang, but they should not be allowed to join Tshognam temple, and we therefore humbly request you to apprehend them and to reinstall them in the convent to which they have traditionally belonged. 

Note
Lines 16–17, bhis thun tsu ma ṇi | gha sdi sogs gang byung skyang | ngos yul khags bzhi yis byo mo snyaṃ la ’khur dgos... : “we nuns of the four communities have been collectively responsible for whatever [dues] there may be, such as bhis thun, tsu ma ṇi and gha sdi.” The Nepali term to which bhis thun corresponds is not clear, but may be connected to beṭh, “Rent for land paid in kind” (Turner 1931); tsu ma ṇi/rtsu rman, which appears in KCh/01 as a category of tax—assessed as 10 rupees per year—that Künzang Chöling had to pay in 1904, probably stands for the word cumān(i), “kissing”, and gha sti/gha sdi for gaddi, “throne”. Until further information is available, we may conclude tentatively that these are all categories of taxes or other payments on religious estates that were considered at least partly to be symbolic gestures of loyalty or subservience to the Nepalese Crown.

Commentary
The following document, KCh/38, appears to be an earlier draft of the present one. The handwriting is less careful and there are more deletions, and it is also worth noting that this document, KCh/37, presents the nuns of Künzang Chöling in a less confrontational light: it omits a passage, contained in KCh/38, to the effect that the nuns angrily questioned their sisters from Te on the reason for their lateness, and threatened them with a fine. The omission is probably intended to present the authors as the more reasonable party in the dispute; the Tepa nuns, by contrast, showed scant reverence to the divinities in the temple insofar as they did not prostrate fully, and left amid much shouting. Interestingly, the document that presents the Tepa nuns’ side of the story claims that they were “dragged outside by all the other nuns of Tshug convent, who expelled them with the notification that they should not come back” (Tibetan Sources 2, HMA/UTshognam/Tib/23).

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 37b

see HMA/KCh/Tib/ 37a

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 38a

Date: none given
Lines: 23
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Summary
Draft of KCh/37: see preceding document for edited text and commentary.

Transliteration

1. klo smad a smal phyogs gis bka’ rtsar bdu |

2. sted byo mo u tshad nyi ma 1 | u tshad stan chon dzom 1

3. nyi ma chung bha 1 | byo mo dpal zang 1 | yees (ye shes) chos dzom 1 | gsuṃ chogs grol ma 1 | dngos ’grubs ang mo 1 kho po mi ngos bdun nas

4. ’khrim med dbang yod byas pa’i ming bdu [in the names of the seven nuns who have acted lawlessly and dbang yod = brazenly] | ngos dgon pa gang gis byo mo tshugs | tsang le | gya kha | yul khor gsuṃ gis

5. byo mo nas zos pa ma khyags pa’i (we couldn’t put up with it) bha rdi i sar bris nas ’phul nying —

6. don tsha | sngon dgon pa gang phyag rab nas tshun (since the foundation of the gompa)/ sted tshugs gyags rtsang yul tsho bzhi yis | chu babs (ND rgyun mi chad pa) gis mo dgon yin

7. bar stan nas sngon pha med gis chags chod pa (offerings and ceremonies) rnaṃs dang shi ’bu (= gshin po) rnaṃ gis byor phyags smon laṃ rnaṃs dang | zla zas (dasain) gis

8. byor phyags gis smonṃ (smon lam) rnaṃs | yang skyer bdus bdus bsu | cho kha (rituals) smonṃ (smon lam) gang yod pa la | byo mo tshang ma dzoṃs nas

9. smonṃ (smon lam) gsung phyogs (< gsung chog) rnang dgos bha la | yos lo zla ba 9 pa’i tshe 30 nyin | zla zas gis smonṃ (smon lam) yin pas | sted byo mo

10. rnam gho skyam gro (the refuge-taking at the beginning) la ma yong bar | bzhug bsam bha lhun grub la gleb byungs pas (they arrived only at the very end) | nyed byo mo rnams

11. nas smon laṃ gang po skyor zin nas (after finishing reading ; skyor = grogs) ma non bar | khyed stad byo mo la chad pa yang khel yong zer bdu | kho po rnam

12. nyin dang | khyed byoo (byo mo) la smon [1S] shogs zer nas | sda sdung mi ngos {1S} yis khro’ stang nas khyed byoo rnaṃs smonṃ (smon lam) zin nas ma yong bar spyi la gor ba zer bdus

13. snam nas skang skyer (standing upright, not prostrating themselves they did prostrations) la phyag gsum 3 ’phul nas | by[o] bha chen po padma ’on bar | ke gsrungs che mo nyed

14. rted gyis byo mo rnaṃs | nyi ma ’di ring nas zung nas dgong bha bzhun zer bdugs pa  | nged byo mo nas

15. chab ga bzhees (bzhes bzhes) chab ga bzhus zer bdus | kho po rnam rnaṃs nas chang ma thung bar | ked bra

16. rton bzhin | dzis sding che bzhin logs song pas | byes gsu u tshad spen khri zang mos shi nas | smonṃ (smon lam) skyor bdu

17. shogs zer nas | ngos gis spyi ba sda stang nas yong ma byung | yang ro zan skyal bdu stang nas | ro zan skyang nen

18. bdu ma nyen | nyed dgon pa skyang smen zer byung pas | nged dgon gang gis dgon pa la – – rgyal zhab brmen (rin po che) phral bab gha ’di

19. tsu ma ṇi sogs gis | phral rig byang dgos pa’i dgon bha yin pas | kho po sted pa’i byo mo rnaṃs nas | dgon pa saṃ

20. ba tshogs rnam snya dgon pa la bzhugs nas sdad bdugs pas | sngon pha med yang gsuṃ nas zung | tsu ma ṇi ga dhi gang byung

21. kyang ngos yul khags bzhi byo mo snyaṃ la ’khur dgos pa la | yos lo lo la ngos sgon gang kyur nas | tshogs

22. rnams dgon la bzhugs me phyogs pas | dgong bka khrim kho po ghug spyang rnang nas | ngos byo mo gon gang la

23. bcugs nas rnang rtab (< gnang stabs) yod bha mkhyeen (mkhyen mkhyen) |


Translation

To the court of Lower Lo. These seven nuns of Te: the [former] precentor, Nyima; the [former] precentor Ten Chöndzom; Nyima the Younger; Sister Palzang; Yeshe Chödzom; Sumchog Drölma; Ngödrub Angmo – these individuals who have acted lawlessly and brazenly. We nuns from the three communities of Tshug, Tsele and Gyaga, no longer being able to endure [their behaviour] are submitting this petition that we have written.

Ever since its foundation, Gönpa Gang has continually been the nunnery of the four communities of Te, Tshug, Gyaga and Tsele: the offerings and ceremonies performed by our forebears; the prayer meetings that have been endowed on behalf of the deceased; for the prayer meeting enabled by the endowments for the Dasain ceremony; and, further, all the periodical rituals and prayers; all the nuns would have to assemble and perform these prayers and rituals.

The 30th day of the 9th month in the Hare year, was the day of the prayers for the Dasain festival. The nuns of Te had not arrived for the Taking of Refuge that begins the ceremony, but arrived only much later, at the Prayer that Spontaneously Fulfils Wishes (bSam pa lhun grub, with which the ceremony closes): they came only after we had finished reciting all the prayers. We said, “You nuns of Te will have to pay the fine.” When we asked them angrily why they were so late, and why they had only come when the prayers had finished, they paid homage to the great Maitreya image while remaining standing, and announced that from that day on they were leaving the convent. We invited them to sit down with us and to have some beer, but they refused to have any. On a later occasion, when the preceptor Sister Pen Trashi died, we sent our steward to call them to take part in the prayers, they did not come; and when we sent them the “corpse food”, they refused to accept it, saying that they were no longer members of the convent. But Gönpa Gang is the convent for which we have shared fiscal obligations, for which we have to pay the gaddi cumāni and other taxes to the government. Now these seven nuns of Te have made an illicit agreement with a new convent, Upper Tshognam. For the past three generations, whatever cumāni [and?] gaddi taxes we had to pay, we, the nuns of all four communities, have had a collective responsible for paying them. They should not be allowed to join Tshognam temple: we humbly request that the law on high should apprehend them and reinstall them in our convent, Gönpa Gang.

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 38b

HMA/KCh/Tib/ 38a

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