For a general introduction to the Tshognam archive see HERE.


HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 01

Date: Thursday, the 5th day in the 9th month of a Fire Tiger year (1866)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 14

Remarks : text difficult to read because of dark paper and pale ink. Square seal on 13th line; round seal on 14th line.

Part of the legal case presented by Lama Rangdrol in his dispute with Lama Rigden over the inheritance of their estate.

First and last lines
1. me stag lo zla dgu pa’i tshes lnga re gza’ span pa la tshogs nam bla ma rang grol dang bla ma tshe dbang ’bum pa pha ’bu gnyis ngos phur ra ang mo ma ’bu
14. phyags stags | de’i phya spang la tshugs pa’i sgan pa tshi ris sri thar sri thar dpal ldan sgan nam kha’ gter nyi ma bkra shis snyis zhugs yig

Since much of this document is illegible it has not been transcribed. It is clear, however, that it is connected with the dispute between Lama Rigden and his younger brother Lama Rangdrol over the division and inheritance of the priestly estate of Lower Tshognam. Two other documents in the archive deal directly with this dispute (although it is mentioned in some later documents too): LTsh/04 and LTsh/08 (part 2). The first, dated 1860, is a settlement between the two brothers. The second, dated Fire Tiger year (1866), 8th month, was written shortly after the death of Lama Rigden and records an agreement permitting Rangdrol and Rigden’s sister Phurba Angmo to occupy the house in which was residing on the estate until her death. The present document is dated Fire Tiger year (1866), 9th month, and was therefore written a month later than LT/08. On behalf of himself and his son Tshewang Bumpa (line 9) the document invokes the will of his late parents, but the argument unfortunately remains unclear.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 02

Date: Earth Snake year, 11th month, 9th day (1869)
Lines: 7
Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field in Tshug to Sonam Norbu of Te for 50 rupees.


tshugs ser zhing yige (yi ge) legs |

1. sa mo sbrul lo’i hlo (hor zla) bcuig (bcu gcig) ba’i tshes 9 la | bsted bsoṃd (bsod nams) nor ’bu dang tshugs steng ma ser sgyi | a ma
2. padma | phur pa rdoe (rdo rje) ma ’bu gsuṃ nyos tshong byas nas bzhing rmo ’khung zo sbha lnga {1} 5 sa bsted bsoṃd (bsod nams) nor bu nas
3. dngul 50 dang dngul 5 {1} rin la bster pa yin bzhing rmo ’khung la bskal ba naṃ bstong ’bar dang pha tshe ’bu rab ’bar la
4. rtse spu byas mi phyogs padma’i rtags X | gser gyis rtags X | phur pa rdoe (rdo rje) rtags (seal) | bde yis phya spang la tshugs
5. kun dga’ tshi ris | dpal don ’grub | tshogs rnaṃs padma rigs^in (rigs ’dzin) | gsum bzhugs yod | yig bris blaṃ (bla ma) ’jam dbyang dbang
7. ’dus yin | bkra shis |

2. nyo tshong 3. yin zhing; nam stong bar; bu rabs bar 4. de yi cha dpang la 5. yig ’bri;

Document concerning the field of Ser[kyi] of Tshug.

9th day of the eleventh month of an Earth Serpent year. Sonam Norbu of Te on the one hand and Serkyi, Mother Pema and Phurba Dorje of Tshug Tangma, the mother and her two sons, have engaged in a financial transaction over the Mokhung field, with a seed capacity of 5 zo ba, for which Sonam Norbu of Te has paid 50 rupees and 5 rupees (sic). Until the world-ages end, and during the life of the father and the generations of his descendants [the vendors] may not sell it [to anyone else], and to this Pema sets her mark; Serkyi sets his mark; Phurba Dorje sets his mark. The witnesses to this are these three: Kunga Tshering and Pal Dondrup of Tshug, and Pema Rigdzin of Tshognam. The scribe was Lama Jamyang Angdu. Blessings.

Line 3–4, pha tshe bu rabs bar: lit. “during the life of his father and the generation of his sons”, but the formula is clearly intended as an expression of eternity. Cf. the SMT proverb phatse bu | datse zhu (prob. pha tshe bu | mda’ rtsed gzhu), apparently signifying that the pro- duction of male heirs is as essential to the life of a father as a bow is to the use of an arrow in archery.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 03

Date: Water Bird Year, 6th month, 22nd day (1873)
Lines: 6
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Contract for the sale of a field by a man of Tshugpa to a man from Te.

1. chu mo bya yi lo zla 6 tshes 22 lo bsted pa tshe dbang tshe ring tshugs choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis tshogs rnam gzhing shag
2. ’thang zo ba 4 nyo tshong byas nas rin la dngul 50 byas nas bskal pa nam stang ’bar la spus ster tshar | bde la
3. kho rog dkar po naṃ ’gyur |gtsang chu sngon mo rgyan log naṃ yong ’bar | grtsong ’tshar chos skyabs nas rdoe (rdo rje)
4. nas skad spu rtsaṃ med pa choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) rang ’thad rtags X bde’i phya spang tshugs rgan naṃkha’ (nam mkha’)
5. rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis bzhugs | yige (yig ge) blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal (rdoe) rdo rje yin | bkris (bkra shis) | yige (yi ge) bsaṃ ’grub yin | bkris (bkra shis)
6. chu mo bya yi lo zla 6 tshe

2. thang zo; nam stong bar; skyabs {nas} rdo 3. gyen log; yong bar; btsong tshar 4. de’i cha dpang

22nd day of the 6th month in a Water Bird year. Tshewang Tsering of Te and Chokyab Dorje of Tshug have engaged in a transaction concerning the field in the Riverbed area with a seed capacity of 4 zo ba. The price was 50 rupees. Until the world ages end, it [shall be considered as] having been sold. Until the crow turns white, until the blue river flows uphill, the sale has been concluded. Without saying anything at all, Chökyab Dorje willingly sets his mark. The witnesses to this are the headmen Namkha and Dorje of Tshug. The document was written by Lama Ösal Dorje. Blessings. 6th month in a Water Bird year.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 04

Date: Wood Pig year, 8th month, 4th day, Friday (1875)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 10

A contract for the sale of four fields to Lama Ösal Dorje for 6 se khal of grain.

1. shing phags zla pa 8 pa’i tshes 4 re sa ba zang la tshogs rnaṃ
2. ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) dang padma gro ma dang gnyis nyo ’tshong byas naṃs zhugs 3. pa med pa’i bskor nas mchod tshigs byas tho la gzhing zhi rin
4. ’bru{1} se ’khal ’brugs byas nas gzhing zhi po bskor nas kho
5. rog {1}dkar po naṃ ’gyur dang gtsang chu sngon mo {’gyur} rgyan logs
6. naṃ yong ’bar du padma gro mi bskor nas smigs ta ’gyu med
7. ’od gsel rdoe (rdo rje) {4S} nas mi thad rin klogs
8. zer skyu med par rin thugs thags mchod pa yin pas padma gro ma
9. rang thad skyi lags rtags X de yi phya spang la spen pa sri thar dang
10. dkarma gnyis yod X bkris (bkra shis) | gzhing zo pa phyed dang 4 sa yin

1. shing phag; re gza’ pa sangs 2. byed rnams bzhugs 3. chod tshig brjed tho la zhing bzhi rin 4. se khal drug; zhing bzhi po skor; 5. gyen logs; 6. skor nas mig lta rgyu 7. rin slog 8. zer rgyu; thag chod pa yin 9. thad kyis lag rtags; de yi cha dpang 10. zhing zo ba

Friday, the fourth day of the eighth month in a Wood Pig year. This is a contract to record (chod tshig brjed tho) the purchase and sale by Ösal Dorje of Tshogman and Pema Droma, respectively, of four fields for the price of six se khal of grain. Regarding the four fields, until the crow turns white and the blue river flows uphill, Padma Droma should not look at the fields (with a view to repossessing them), and Ösal Dorje shall not say “This is invalid; give me back my payment”. Since the price has been decided (lit. by their minds) Pema Droma willingly sets her mark. The witnesses to this are Penba Hrithar and Karma. The field has a seed capacity of 3.5 zo ba.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 05

Date: Fire Rat year, 6th month, 13th day, Thursday (1876)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 10

Resolution of a legal dispute over the use and ownership of a field. Ösal Dorje may keep the field he was given by his uncle Rigden, but, should he wish to sell it, must give first refusal to his cousin Tshewang Bumpa.

1. me byi zla 6 pa’i tshes 13 re gza’ 5 nyin | tshogs gnaṃ tshe dbang ’buṃ pa dang | ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis kha cham ’thun
2. bsgrubs gyis yige (yi ge) ’bris ’don | sngon blaṃ (bla ma) rig ten nas ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) la tshog gnaṃ zhing gcig spred
3. ’phral bskal khur byas ’dug spar | bde ldon khaṃ mchu ’byung nas ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) nas —1—Zrgyal Zzhabs
4. su bhin ti zhus nas phyag gtaṃ bde khar thag a smal du dro kab slebs spar brten | gnyis chog brig nas
5. ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) la zhing bskal pa naṃ stong ’bar la dbu slang ’byes rkyu med par thob pa yin | rgal srid ’od gsal
6. rdoe (rdo rje) nas zhing tshong phyin tshe dbang ’buṃ pa la ma ’bris par tshong sgyu mi yong | tshong phyin mi nas spred pa’i rin tshe
7. dbang ’buṃ pa nas spred sgyu mchor pa yin | dgong tshig ’don stam rnams su’i sgal ba ’byung kyang —1— Zrgyal Zzhabs la
8. dngul suṃ brgya phul ba ngos ma phya zhu ’dren med par phul nus zhus pa la | mi ’gyur pa tshe dbang ’buṃ pa’i lags rtags X (thumbprint [?] and seal)
9. ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) lags rtags (X and seal) phya spang bri khra a taṃ gsal ’bras | blaṃ (bla ma) thu thob yig ’bris | blam (bla ma)
10. zla ’rgyal po bcas yod pa’i phyags stags sa hi (seal)

1. kha ’cham 2. yi ge ’bri don; gcig sprad 3. khral skal ’khur byas ’dug par; de don kha mchu byung 4. binti zhus; phyag tham de khar thag amāl; ’gro skabs; par brten; gnyis phyogs bsgrigs 5. stong bar; ’ur slang byed rgyu med; gal srid; ma bris par ’tshong rgyu; sprad pa’i 7. sprad rgyu chod pa; gong tshig don gtam rnams sus ’gal 8. phyag zhu 9. lag rtags; cha dpang; yig ’bri 10. phyag rtags sāhi

Thursday, the 13th day of the 6th month in a Fire Dog year. A document of reconciliation between Tshewang Bumpa and Ösal Dorje, [both] of Tshognam. In the past, Lama Rigden gave Ösal Dorje a field in Tshognam, and he took the responsibility for paying his share of the tax. Following a dispute that arose over this, Ösal Dorje submitted a petition to the gov- ernment authority (lit. “the feet of the realm”), and because an official document on that mat- ter had arrived at the courthouse when he went there (?), the two parties made an agreement: Ösal Dorje shall have the field without there being any contention as long as the world age endures; if Ösal Dorje should [wish to] sell the field, he may not do so without first asking Tshewang Bumpa. It has been decided that, if he does [wish to] sell it, Tshewang Bumpa may pay the same price as that offered by the person [who made the offer]. Whoever violates the above terms shall pay a fine of 300 rupees to the government authority, without making any excuses. In confirmation that they will not diverge from the above agreement, Tshewang Bumpa sets his mark; Ösal Dorje sets his mark. The witnesses is the young man (bri khra < Nep. ṭhiṭa?) Aṭam. The scribe was Lama Thuthob. Lama Da(wa?) Gyalpo sets his seal.

This seems to be the original document of which LT/08 contains a copy. In the present document, the animal component of the date is not clearly legible, and may be read either as khyi (dog) or byi (rat), suggesting that the year was either 1886 or 1876. The possibility that the byi lo given in LT/08 might be the the result of an erroneous interpretation of this syllable should not be dismissed. Unfortunately, the tables in Schuh 1973 do not provide an unambiguous identification since in both years the 13th day of the 6th month was a Thursday. The likelihood that byi is indeed the correct reading is supported by the Nepali document referred to in the commentary to LT/08, which gives a date of 1876.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 06

Date: Fire Ox year, 4th month, 24th day (1877)
Lines: 5
Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field by a man of Tshug to Lama Ösal Dorje.

1. me mo glang ho zla 4 tshes 24 la tshog rnaṃ ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) dang dkarma phuo^gs (phun tshogs) gnyis gyi bzhing smo khong zo 5
2. la rin rgyab byas nas kho rog dkarma bo naṃ ’gyur grtsang chu sngon po’i rgyan log naṃ yong ’bar
3. rin rgyab byas nas dngul 50 phyedang (phyed dang) ngag gsuṃ la bskal ba naṃ stang ’bar spus bster tshar
4. pas bde la skad rtse spu rtsaṃ byas mi phyogs pas dkarma phuo^gs (phun tshogs) rang thad gyi rtags X
5. bde yi ge phya spang la gsteng mi ghu ru bkris (bkra shis) yin |

1. hor zla 2. kho rog dkar po nam; gtsang chu sngon po gyen log nam yong bar 3. nga gsum; nam stong bar 4. de la skad spu rtse tsam byed mi chog; rang ’thad kyis 5. de yi cha dpang

24th day of the 4th month in a Fire Ox year. Ösal Dorje of Tshognam and Karma Phuntshog have concluded a transaction for a field with a seed capacity of 5 zo ba in the Mokhong area. Until the crow turns white and the blue river flows uphill, this sale has been concluded, and no one may say anything about it so much as the tip of a hair. Karma Phuntshog willing sets his mark. The witness to this is Guru Trashi of Te.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 07

Date: Fire Ox year, 11th month, 12th day, Monday (1877)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 7

Contract for the sale of a field to a couple (from Te) for 50 rupees by someone from Tshug who needs the cash to repay a loan to a third party from Te. The field is the security on the loan, but the creditor wants only cash from the defaulting debtor.

1. me mo glang lo hlo (hor zla) gcu’ig (gcu gcig) pa’i tshe 12 re za zla ba la bsteng ma nang ga’i bzhing tshogs rnaṃs ’di sted pa nor bu
2. sridr (srid thar) gyis dngul 45 bo’i bha mdo la yod pa de nur bu sridr (srid thar) gyis nga ni zhing ’di mi byed dngul khyer shogs zer nas | spa sang
3. phur ba dang | skye sman spa sang sgrol ma 2 la nyos zer bar brtan nas | nga za mi 2 kyis bzhing ’di la dngul 50 byas
4. nas nyos pa yin | de la mi ngo su thad nas gnyer dang tsher ba | dmar po tshos log snyogs spa lding logs ’dran daṃ
5. bsar kye[s] byed sa med pa nang gi lags rtags X | yul pa’i gnyer tshes byung na khas len yong zer ba gu ru’i
6. lags rta[gs] X | de yi cha spang la sted bkun’ (bkun dga’) dun drug | yigs dris tshogs rnaṃs bla ma yin |
7. bzhing [1]la zo ba 3 sa bo’i nas zo ba ’dun dun lo re la ’dab rgyu chod pa yin |

1. bcu gcig pa’i tshes; re gza’; zhing tshogs 2. banḍhak la; khyer shog; bar rten; bza’ mi; bzhing ’di 4. su ’thad nas brnyas pa dang gtser ba; rnyogs pa gting slong dran gtam 5. gsar skyes; brnyas gtser 6. cha dpang; yig ’bri; sa bon gyi nas; bdun bdun lo; ’debs rgyu

Monday, the 12th day of the 11th month in a Fire Ox year. Concerning the Tshognam field that Namkha of Tangma pledged as security for the 45 rupees [that he borrowed from] Norbu Hrithar of Te, Norbu Hrithar said “I don’t want (lit. shall not do) the field—fetch me the money”. Because I, Pasang Phurba, and my wife Drolma were asked (lit. told) to buy the field, we have bought it for 50 rupees. There shall be no denial of this agreement by anyone, nor shall the colour red fade, nor shall sediment be raised from the deep, nor shall issues that have been remembered be raised anew, and to this we set our mark. Guru sets his mark to confirm that if villagers should dispute the matter, they will [be persuaded to] accept it. The witness is Kunga Dundrug of Te. The scribe was the lama of Tshognam. The field has a seed-capacity of 3 zo ba and the annual tax on it [payable to Tshug], is 7 zo ba of barley.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 08

Date: Earth Hare year, 1st month, 15th day (1879)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 5

Contract for the sale of a field to Lama Ösal Dorje for 20 rupees.

§ tshogs rnaṃs bzhing shags thang yige (yi ge) legs |

1. § sa mo yos lo’i zla dang po’i tshes 15 la blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) dang choskyab (chos skyab) rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis
2. bzhing nyo ’tshong byas nas bskal ba nam nas ’bar ’bur rtsu la gster tshar pas bde
3. la (chos skyab) rdoe (rdo rje) nas skad rtse spu byas mi phyogs dngul 20 la thugs thag mchod pa yin |
4. don phya ’di la mi ’gyur (chos skyab) rdoe’i (rdo rje’i) rtags (seal) bde phya spang la bsted tshe dbang
5. nor bu yod | bzhing zo pa 2 sa yin | bkris (bkra shis)

2. zhing nyo; nam gnas bar; ’bur rtsu (see note) la bster tshar pa de 3. gtser po (?) byed mi chog; thugs thag chod pa 4. don rtsa; de cha dpang; zhing zo

Document concerning the Shagtang field of Tshognam.

15th day of the first month in an Earth Hare year. Lama Ösal Dorje and Chökyab Dorje have engaged in a transaction over a field. As long as the world ages endure, this field has been conclusively sold (lit. given). Chökyab Dorje shall say nothing to contradict this. A price of 20 rupees has been decided. In confirmation that he will not diverge from this arrangement, Chökyab Dorje places his mark. The witness to this is Tshewang Norbu of Te. The field has a seed capacity of 2 zo ba. Blessings.

Line 2, ’bur rtsu: of uncertain etymology, this expression appears in several documents, with different spellings, apparently as a legal formula with the sense of “for ever” or “definitively”.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 09r

Date: Iron Dragon year, 5th month, 14th day, Monday (1880)
Lines: 5
Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field to Lama Ösal Dorje for 8 rupees.

tshugs zla pa bsaṃ grub zhing yige (yi ge) legs |

1. lcags ’brug zla 5 ba’i tshes 14 re gza’ zla pa la tshogs blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje)
2. dang tshug zla pa bsaṃ grub gnyis bzhing bsaṃ cang zo pa phyedang (phyed dang) do pa 1S
3. dngul 8 song bde la zla pa bsaṃ grub nas bskal pa naṃ stong ’bar spus bster
4. tshar mi don phya ’di la mi ’gyur zla pa bsaṃ grub rtags X bde phya spang
5. karma phuon^gs (phun tshogs) yin | bkris (bkra shis)

2. gnyis zhing 3. de la; stong bar 4. don rtsa; de cha dpang

Document concerning the field of Dawa Samdrub of Tshug

Monday, the 14th day of the 5th month in an Iron Dragon year. Lama Ösal Dorje of Tshognam and Dawa Samdrub of Tshug have engaged in a transaction concerning a field from the Samcang area with a seed capacity of 1.5 zo ba, for a price of 8 rupees. Dawa Samdrub, a man who has concluded the sale until the world age ends, sets his mark to confirm that this agreement shall not be altered. The witness to this is Karma Phuntshog. Blessings.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 09v

See HMA/UTshognam/Tib/09r for transliteration and translation

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 10

Date: Iron Snake year, 7th month, 2nd day, Friday (1881)
Lines: 11
Script: ’khyug

Document confirming that a debtor from Tshug is unable to repay his Tepa creditors 40 rupees he owes, and agrees to forfeit the field that he has pledged as security.


’grin rdzin legs |

1. lcags mo sbrul lo zla 7 pa’i tshes 2 re gza’ dpal bzang la | gter pa bsoṃd (bsod nams) nor
2. ’bu dang ’du li tsha dbang gnyis gyis dngul 35 rbed nges sbyang mi thub par brten nas ’tshugs nya pa bkris (bkra shis) dang chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis
3. bsted ’du yong nas chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) dang bkris (bkra shis) gzhibs par byas nas sngon gyis gtaṃ sug snying ma la phya gnas byas
4. nas chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) ha dgos nas dngul 35 rbed ngos sdoṃ nas rtsis sdoṃ byed nas dngul bzhis bcu la kho bo chos skyabs
5. rdoe (rdo rje) nas ho ha dgos nas bzhing mda’ sa zo pa 6 bzhis rag sa bskal ba naṃ stong bar la choskyab (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) nas gter pa yin kho rog
6. dkar po naṃ gyur gtsang chu sngon mo rgyan logs naṃ yong ’bar la chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) nas gter pa rang ’thad gyi rtags X yang bde’is bskor
7. bzhing mda’ sa bzo pa bzhis la nyon mong ’byung nas khas len so thags nya pha bkris (bkra shis) mi ’gyur pa’is ’gyur pa’i rtags X
8. yang ’di phya spang nyis ma bkris (bkra shis) | ka mi sri ’thar gnyis bzhugs | yang dgongs bzhing mda’ sa ’phral la ’du li tsha dbang
9. nas dngul 6 chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) lags tu song ’dzin dngul 6 rbed dngul ree (re re) la rbed bzo pa do do bzhing mda’ sa ’phral
10. gter pa don phya ’di la mi ’gyur choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) rang thad gyi rtags X bde’i phya spang dgongs mi rnaṃ bzhugs yod
11. yig gris blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) yin |

’dran ’dzin legs

1. gza’ pa sangs; bed nges 3. zhib par; tamsuk rnying pa la cha nas 4. ha go; bed dngos; byas nas; bzhi bcu 5. nas zhing; 6 zhirag (see note) 6. gyen log nam yong bar; yang de’i skor 7. bzhi la nyon mongs; so thags (?) nyaba (SMT < gnya’ bo); mi ’gyur ba’i {’gyur pa’i} rtags 8. cha dpang; gong zhing; khral la 9. lag tu song ’dzin dngul 6 bed; bed zo ba do do zhing; sa khral 10. ster ba don rtsa; rang ’thad; de’i cha dpang gong mi rnams 11. yig ’bri


Friday, the 2nd day of the 7th month in an Iron Snake year. Since I was unable to pay the loan of 35 rupees that I had taken from Sonam Norbu and Duli Tshewang of Te, my guarantor Yun Trashi and I, Chökyab Dorje of Tshug, came to Te to make a careful examination, and found that according to the loan receipt, Chökyab Dorje understands that the total of the original sum of 35 rupees and the accumulated interest comes to 40 rupees. Chökyab Dorje has given the field called Dasa, with a seed capacity of 6 zo ba and [one] zhirag until the world ages end. Chökyab Dorje freely sets his mark to confirm that he has given this field until the crow turns white, and the blue river flows uphill. If, in the future, there should be any problems in relation to this Dasa field that has a capacity of 4 zo ba, the guarantor Yun Trashi will [testify that] an agreement was concluded (? khas len so thags), and this he confirms by placing his mark.
    The witnesses to this are Nyima Trashi and Kami Hrithar.
    And furthermore, concerning the tax on this abovementioned Dasa field, Duli Tshewang has given Chökyab Dorje 6 rupees. There will be two zo ba (of barley) of interest from each rupee, and Chökyab Dorje freely sets his mark in confirmation that he will not waver from the purpose of this [6 rupees], which is the payment of the taxes for the Dasa field. The witness- es to this are the same as those named above. The scribe was Lama Ösal Dorje.

The size of the Dasa field in question remains unclear. At the first mention it is described as having a seed capacity of 6 zo ba and 1 zhirag. This appears to be an alteration of an original specification of 4 zo ba, the size that is given in all other mentions of this field, both here and in UT/11.
    The reason why the Tepa Duli Tshewang gives 6 rupees to the Tshugpa Chökyab Dorje is simply to avoid having to turn up at Tshug’s annual meeting for payment of land taxes. The interest on the non-returnable cash presentation of 6 rupees will be sufficient to cover the taxes on the Tepa’s newly-acquired field.

Line 5, bzhis rag (SMT zhirag): a quarter of a zo ba, as a drugdrag is a sixth of a zo ba.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 11

Date: Iron Snake year, 7th month, 2nd day, Thursday (1881)
Lines: 14
Script: ’khyug

A copy of HMA/UTshognam/Tib/10.

1. choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) g.yung bkris (bkra shis) gnyis kyis bzhing 2. yige (yi ge) lags |
3. lcags mo sbru[l]

1. lcags mo sbrul lo zla 7 pa’i tshes 2 re gza’ dpa’ bzang la bster pa bsoṃd (bsod nams) nor bu dang
2. ’du li tshe dbang gnyis gyis dngul rbed ngos sbyang mi thub par bsten nas bkris (bkra shis) sa ’u nas zin pas bkris (bkra shis) dang choskyabs (chos skyabs)
3. rdoe (rdo rje) gnyis bsted ’du yong nas chos skyab rdoe (rdo rje) dang bkris (bkra shis) gnyis zhib par byed nas sngon gyi yige (yi ge) snying [pa/ma] la
4. phya gnas byas nas kho bo chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) ha dgos nas dngul ngos dang rbed sdoṃ nas rtsis stong byed ste
5. dngul brgya dang bzhi bcu la kho bo chos skyabs rdoe (rdo rje) ’thad nas nya pa bkris (bkra shis) lags tu choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) gter ba
6. nas bzhing mda’ sa gter pa yin / bnya’ pa bkris (bkra shis) nas sa ’u gnyis la bzhing mda’ sa zo ba
7. bzhis sa bskal pa naṃ stong ’bar mdang kho rog dkar po naṃ ’gyur gang sti si naṃ zhus gtsang chu sngon
8. mo rgyan logs naṃ yong ’bar la chokyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) (bkra shis) gnyis thogs nas ster pa yin ’don phya
9. ’di la mi ’gyur chokyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) rang ’thad gyi rtags X yang bde’i bskor la bzhing mda’ sa zo pa
10. bzhi sa la nyon mong ’byung tshes khas len so thags nya pha bkris (bkra shis) mi ’gyur pa’i rtags X
11. ’di yi phya spang nyi ma bkris (bkra shis) | ka mi sri thar gnyis bzhugs | yang dgongs gi bzhing mda’ sa
12. ’phral la ’du li tshe dbang nas dngul 6 chokyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) lags tu song ’dzin sna pha dngul ree (re re) la zo pa do do byas
13. nas bzhing mda’ sa ’phral la gter pa yin ’don ’di la mi ’gyur choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) rang ’thad gyi rtags X
14. phya spang dgongs mi rnaṃ bzhugs yod | yig bris bla ma ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) yin |

1. gnyis kyi zhing

1. gza’ pa sangs 2. dngul bed ngo (note: the term that corresponds to ngo, “principal, capital” in SMT is pronounced ngö); par brten; sāu nas 3. du yong; rnying pa 4. cha nas byas; ha go; dngul ngo dang bed bsdoms nas rtsis gtong byas 5. lag tu; bster ba 6. bster ba yin; sāu gnyis la zhing 7. bzhi sa; stong bar dang; gangs ti se nam zhu 8. gyen log; bar la; thog nas bster; don rtsa 9. yang de’i skor zhing 10. nyon mongs ’byung tshe; so thags (?) nyaba (SMT < gnya’ bo) 11. ’di yi cha dpang; gong gi zhing 12. khral la; lag tu; nāphā dngul 13. nas zhing; khral la bster ba; don ’di 14. cha dpang gong mi rnams; yig ’bri

Title on verso reads: “[Concerning] the field of Chökyab Dorje and Yung Trashi”. The con- tent of this document is substantially the same as that of UT/10. The date, the witnesses and the scribe are also the same. It is likely that the Lama Ösal Dorje was charged with keeping one copy for each of the parties to the agreement.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 13

Date: Fire Dog year, 2nd month, 1st day, Friday (1886)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 21 (12 lines of main text, 9 lines of signatures in two columns).

Document (ra’ zhigs pha rag < Nep. rāji-patra) issued by the subjects (mnga’ zhabs) of Baragaon to three leaders, in acceptance of their apology for having levied double taxes on the community.

1. § she (?) | me pho khyi lo zla pa 2 pa’i tshes 1 res 6 la blo smad b.yul bha 18 gan 18 nas ga ga zang dog dang sted ’du li dang rdzong tshe dbang
2. mi ngo 3 la ra’ zhigs pha rag bris nas krad don la | don tsa sngon lcags ’brugs lo la rdzar sku zhab bhel [p]o [dp]on po zas par rte[n]
3. de’i ka lon la ga ga zang ’dog dang sted ’du li dang sdzong tshe dbang sridar (srid thar) 3 byas par rten nas | ngos snga zhab nas phral ’dab spar bdus pa’i
4. dkor la | kha sngon skag bdu phral kyi dkor la snga bzhab nas dzin byang snang nas | yaṃ bu ru si ri rgyal bdu ’dar zhan la
5. ngos mi ngo 4 zhag 1 kyang ma gyang par sa mil byed gyu dang | gal srid sma bleb phyin ser dngul dbyu byur zang rag dang phyugs rigs skang
6. zhi sogs la phral ’dab par dthogs la lags gyab kyang man mi zhu zhus nas a dkar bris nas snangpa la|adkaryige
7. la ngos zhi nas sas gyab nas snga zhab la phul par sten nas | ’dir rgyal bzhab su ga ga zong (zang rdor) dang tshe dbang sridar (srid thar) dang sdu li 3 bleb
8. nas | ngos snga zhab nas — 1 rgyal zhab su bhin sti spa star phul nas | khong mi ngo 3 ’khrim zhab nas ’gugs spyang snang nas | ka’
9. khrim nas ’dar zhan byas bdus | phral ’dab spar blogs dgos ’babs nas | sku bzhab bhel po dgong phud dang | snyed 3 nas
10. sku khyen kyi res pa dkor nas | snga zhabs la zho ’bul byas nas dngul 140 byang nas | ngos snga zhab thugs ha dgos nas | blar phyin chad
11. chad nas | khyed {1} 3 la rtsis zhugs yod dang zhib par yod zer pa med dang | rnaṃ sprin med dang sa la bud med dang | dbu blang brang skad rtsaṃ
12. med zer ra zhigs pha rags bris nas krad pa yin | dgong tshigs sde rnaṃ la blo smad yul ga 18 gan 18 nas phul ba’i rtags ——X chos khor padma gyur med —X
13. tab gzhil

Left column
1. chos khor padma gyur med {rtsos brong re} —X
2. blu krag dkar byung rtsos brong res mi res —X
3. skag gan skun zang nyi ma rtsos brong res mi res —X 4. dpags ling gan tshe ring rtsos brong res mi res —X
5. phan lags gan stam drin rtsos brong res mi res —X
6. dang rdzong gan sam grub rtsos brong res mi res —X 7. sting ri gan o rgyan rtsos brong res mi res —X
8. tshug gan nyi ma phun tshog rtsos brong res mi res —X

Right column
1. gya ga gan steni^n (stan ’dzin) nor bu rtsos brong res mi res —X (seal)
2. sa mar gan lam snyed rtsos brong res mi res —X
3. dtsang li gan rgyal nor bu rtsos brong res mi res —X
4. sted gan ghan gha bdrug sten dzin rtsos brong res mi res —X
5. sdzong gan kra shis rnam kyal rtsos brong res mi res —X
6. spu ra gan dbyung drung rtsos brong res mi res —X
7. sdzar gan shi log rtsos brong res mi res —X
8. khye kha gan rgyal tshan rtsos brong res mi res —X
9. dpu kra gan span pa tshe ri dtsos brong res mi res —X

1. yul pa 18 rgan 2. rāji-patra bris; sprad don; don rtsa; lcags ’brug 3. de’i bka’ blon; mnga’ zhabs nas khral ldab par bsdus 4. skor la; khral gyi skor; ’dzin ’chang gnang nas; śri rgyal du brdar zhan la 5. ma brgyang par sāmel byed rgyu; ma sleb; gser dngul g.yu byu ru zangs rag 6. bzhi sogs; khral ’debs; thog la lag rgyab; akarna (? official record; or hakār, “rebuke”?) yi ge 7. dngos gzhi (?) nas sāhi brgyab nas; ’bul bar brten nas; rgyal zhabs su 8. rgyal zhabs su binti-patra; khrims zhabs nas ’gug ’chang gnang; bka’ 9. khrims nas brdar zhan byed dus; khral ldab pa slog; sku zhabs 10. sku mkhyen gyi re ba skor; zhu ba ’bul; sbyang nas; ha go; slar phyin {chad} 11. gnam la sprin; ’ur langs sbrang skad 12. rāji-patra bris nas sprad; gong tshig de rnams; rgan 18 13. tapsil

Friday, the 1st day of the 2nd month in a male Fire Dog year. The eighteen headmen of the eighteen villages of Baragaon submit this document (ra’ zhigs pha rag < Nep. rāji-patra) to the Nobleman Zangdor, Duli of Te and Tshewang of Dzong. The subject is as follows.
    After Kuzhab Bhelpo of Dzar became the dpon po in the Iron Dragon year (six years previously [1880–81]), Nobleman Zangdor, Duli of Te and Tshewang Hrithar of Dzong these three people became his agents (bka’ lon, lit. ministers). They were previously apprehended, at Kag, by the community on a charge of collecting double (’dab par < ldab par) taxes from the subjects of Baragaon.
    When the matter first came to light, four people were selected to go and contest the case in Kathmandu, with the undertaking that if any of them failed to meet his obligations the com- munity could confiscate some of his property. However, the three culprits have been seized now and are present at this meeting. During the enquiry it has been judged that they should return the extra money they took. Kuzhab Bhelpo is excused (dgong phud [phus?]). The three accused, however, humbly request pardon and pay 140 rupees to the subjects, and we, the people who are the subjects, agree never to say that there is an outstanding sum to be paid.
This document is presented with the statement that there shall be no clouds in the sky and no dust on the ground, and no disturbance so much as the buzzing of a fly.
    Each of the eighteen headmen of the eighteen villages of Baragaon sets his mark after his name.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 14

Date: Earth Rat year, 5th month, 29th day (1888)
Lines: 46
Script: ’khyug

lama Ösal Dorje has been engaged in a legal dispute over unpaid taxes with the community of tshug, on whose territory lower tshognam stands, and this is the list of expenses he has incurred during the case. the expenses are mainly in cash, ranging from 1 ṭam to 10 rupees, given to people such as police (shis pas < nep. sipāhi), the subba, and other agents in the wrangle. there are also expenses for various legal procedures, and provision of beer and food during certain gatherings. other dates are mentioned. he loses his case, and in the last four lines it is stated that he returns sixteen years’ worth of taxes to the people of tshug, and has paid the rental on the field in accordance with village custom, and that the matter is settled.

note: this document is divided into dated periods, apparently representing the different phases in the development of the case. for the reader’s convenience, these have been numbered with roman numerals. in addition, for the sake of clarity, each instance of expenditure, whether rupee (dngul) or half-rupee (ṭam) is indicated at the end of each line, along with the total expenditure registered in that line.

A tabular presentation of the contents of this document can be found here.

29th day of the 5th month in an Earth Rat year: a list of financial expenses drawn up by lama Ösal Dorje concerning a legal dispute over his fields.
3. for the police (shi pas < nep. sipāhi) investigation: 1 rupee; for the subba: 1 rupee: for making a copy (sna skal < nep. nakal) of the public notice (i sar < nep. istihār?):1 ṭam
5. for the clerk (kha la dar < nep. kharidār) who deals with applications (? binti): 1 rupee; for lakchin Prasad: 1 rupee; for beer: 1 ṭam
6. for cooked rice: 1 ṭam; for beer: 1 rupee; for rice: 1 ṭam
7. all the above are my expenses for beer and food for one month and 11 days.

8. Since the 19th day of the 8th month:
beer: 1 ṭam; beer again: 1 ṭam
9. rice: 1 ṭam; for the subba: 1 rupee for the subba’s lady wife (su bha sha shag gen mo: Nep. subba, Seke shag [feminine suffix], genmo < rgan mo): 1 rupee
10. beer: 1 ṭam beer: 1 rupee; rice: 1 ṭam
this is what was spent. Blessings.

11. since the 3rd day of the fourth month: beer: 1 ṭam
12. rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 rupee; beer: a further 1 ṭam
13. for the subba: 1 rupee; beer: 1 ṭam; rice:
14. 1 ṭam; beer: 1 ṭam

This was my expenditure on beer and food for one and a half months.

15. since the 29th day of the 9th month:
beer: 1 ṭam; for the subba: 10 rupees; rice: 1 ṭam;
16. beer: 1 rupee; beer: 1 ṭam; rice: 1 ṭam
17. beer: 1 ṭam

This was my expenditure on beer and rice for food over a period of 26 days.

18. on the 13th day of the 3rd month (presumably in the following year, earth ox 1889) in the courthouse (a rta legs < nep. adālat) , when it transpired (’byu < ’byung) that we had no legal grounds (? khrim dbang tsan med pa) for not listening (man gnyan), and when both (gnyis ka) the people of tshug and i were presenting our respective cases (ka srad < skad sre. “mixing speech”, or < kha sprod “confronting each other”?):
beer: 1 ṭam
20. the judge in the government courthouse (a rta legs < nep. adālat): 1 rupee; the secretary: 1 rupee
21. rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 rupee; rice: 1 rupee; beer: 1 ṭam
22. sa lam (?): 1 rupee; beer: 1 ṭam; rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 ṭam
23. beer: 1 rupee; rice: 1 ṭam
these were my expenses for beer and food over a period of 2 months and 11 days.\

Since the 17th day of the 4th month:
25. beer: 1 ṭam; rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 rupee
25–26. this was my expenditure on beer and food over 23 days
4. for the man who wrote the [lacuna]-len: 1 rupee; for the presentation of the public notice: 1 rupee

26. since the (lacuna) day of the 9th month: beer: 1 ṭam;
27: rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 rupee: rice: 1 ṭam 28. beer: 1 ṭam:
this was my expenditure on beer and food over a period of 1 month and 5 days.

29. then after moving to Dana:
30. to narayan, the brother of Prasad (? dbar sa; see line 13): 5 rupees; to the judge: 1 rupee; to bi sa rti (?): 1 rupee; one leg of meat (prob. mutton or goat)
31. (lacuna); beer: 1 rupee
32. rice: 1 ṭam; beer: 1 rupee; rice 1 ṭam; beer: 1 ṭam
33. to the judge: 1 rupee; to Prasad (?): 1 ṭam; beer: (unspecified)
34. to the judge, as a fine: 20 rupees; beer: 1 ṭam
35. rice: 1 ṭam

This was my expenditure on beer (sic) for one and a half months.

36. 17th day of the 9th month. Beer: 1 ṭam; rice: 1 ṭam
37. beer: 1 rupee; rice 1 rupee; beer:
38. 1 rupee; for the individual who ran errands at home: 1 rupee
39. beer: 1 ṭam; to tshering chökyab of tshug: 3 ṭam; beer: 1 (?) ṭam
40. this was my expenditure on beer and food for a period of 1 month and 19 days

41. then after returning home, since the 23rd day of the 2nd month, following an internal inves- tigation, I returned 16 years’ worth of taxes to the people of tshug, paying it at the rate of the government tax, in grain, according to village custom, and the matter was just settled. At that time I gave my friend Tshering Chökyab one rupee. After five days the matter was closed.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 15

Date: Earth Rat year, 5th month, 13th day, Thursday (1888)
Lines: 27
Script: ’khyug

Remarks: seal on line 27, devanāgari.

Agreement between an elderly couple of te and lama Ösal Dorje of tshognam over a field owned by the former and leased to the latter. the former owner of the field is clandestinely harvesting the field, and the elderly couple and the lama are considering ways to prevent him from doing so. .

1. sa byi zla 5 pa’i tshes 13 re gza’ phur ’bu nyin | gter mee (me me) bsoṃd (bsod nams)
2. nor ’phu i bi srgyas (sangs rgyas) min mdzom gnyis mdang | tshogs rnaṃs blaṃ (bla ma) ’od
3. gsal rdoe (rdo rje) gsuṃ gis mchod tshig yige (yi ge) bris ’don la | dgongs sal
4. gnyis nas ’tshugs choskyabs (chos skyabs) rdoe (rdo rje) la {zhing} dngul ’bun btang pa’i ngos rbed lo
5. mang po thugs sbyang ma rnus par zhing gcig grigs la bzhags pa ’bur tshur
6. phul sa’u a sa mi gnyis phyogs ha dgos nas krad len byas tshar dugs
7. pa sa’u gnyis nas blaṃl (bla ma la) bzhing thog phyeed (phyed phyed) byis rkyu la phul dugs zhing | rjesu (rjes su) choskyabs (chos skyabs)
8. rdo rje khrel med byas nas lo gsuṃ bzhis tsam zhing sbal shed kyi mtshan
9. mo mtshan mo sngas nas khyer {1s} la zhibs dpyed byas kyang thag ma mchod par
10. tshugs yul pa la zhing ’di’i phral lo mang po’i bar ma ’byung pas nges ma rnus song
11. pas khyed yul pa nas zhing ston la zhes zer nas stad tshugs yul pas kyang
12. khas len nas de’i slang mor zhibs byas ma mchod par kha mchu ’byung ’par
13. rten khrim Zzhabs su thugs ste zhing slog dgos brabs ’byung ba la blaṃ (bla ma) nas dgong
14. sal sa’u gnyis la sngan rang ltar gyis slang mo dang dpon khrims slang mo bshad par 15. byas nas dad lte ji ltar byed khyed zhal gros mdzod ces sung pas | zhing dag
16. sa’u gnyis Zzhal gros kyis thog nas dngul kyin rnaṃs gang ’byor len nus
17. pa mdzad rog mdangs | ’byung na thabs byus gang grags mdzad nas zhing ma
18. shor pa thobs pa byung tshe blaṃa’i (bla ma’i) yon kyang chang rin ’gro sgo ji ltar ’byung kyang
19. ngos gnyis nas phul phyogs cing | ’gal srid ma phul pa shar tshe zhing rin ngos po’i
20. dngul gang thon de gnyis mi zhu zhus nas zhing gis bskor la slang mo bsu bha sman dang
21. a rta legs su khrims thugs pa ngos ma yin pas dgong mchod ltar ma
22. phul pa shar tshe | bzhing bde bskal pa naṃ stong gang dkar ti se naṃ zhu mtsho
23. ma spang naṃ skams kho rog dkar por naṃ gyur tsang mchu sngon mo gyen
24. logs naṃ yongs ’bar ’du mar po tshos logs snyog ba lding log bran
25. gtaṃ gsar khyed med zhu nas phul ldas mi ’gyur mee (me me) bsoṃd (bsod nams) nor ’bu
26. rang thad rtags X i bi srgyas (sangs rgyas) min mdzom rang thad rtags X
27. bde’i phya spang ’tshogs rnaṃs mee (me me) padma rigsin (rigs ’dzin) | kar ma chos skyabs | kyu kar gaga
28. ram ’byor gsuṃ bzhugs | yig ’bris spu rangs ’tshams pa srgyas (sangs rgyas) bcues (tshes bcu?) kyi rtags (seal)

1. phur bu 2. gnyis dang 3. chod tshig yi ge ’bri don; gong gsal 4. ngo bed lo 5. thug sbyang ma nus; sgrig (?) la bzhag pa ’bun tshur 6. sāu asāmi gnyis; ha go; sprad len; tshar ’dug 7. sāu gnyis; zhing thog; byed rgyu la phul ’dug 8. gsum bzhi; bal shed kyis 9. brngas nas ’khyer; zhib dpyad; chod par 10. khral lo; ma byung; ma nus 11. bton (?) la bzhes zer nas 12. gleng mo zhib; ma chod par kha mchu byung bar 13. khrims zhabs; grabs byung; nas gong 14. gsal sāu gnyis; sngon rang; gleng mo dang; gleng mo bshad 15. nas bsdad de; gsungs pas; zhing bdag 16. sāu gnyis; dngul skyin 17. mdzad rogs dang; thabs jus gang drag 18. thob pa 19. phul chog; gal srid 20. gleng mo subba man 21. adālat; khrims thug; ngos ma; gong chod 22. zhing de bskal; gangs dkar 23. ma pang nam skam; nam ’gyur gtsang chu 24. log nam yong bar du dmar po tshos log rnyog pa gting slong dran 25. gsar skyes; phul de mi 26. rang ’thad 27. de’i cha dpang 28. mtshams pa

Thursday, the 13th day of the 5th month in an earth rat year. a written agreement issued by three people: grandfather sonam and grandmother sangye mindzom of te, and lama Ösal Dorje of tshognam. for many years, chökyab Dorje of tshug has been unable to repay either the principal or the interest on the debt he owes to the two people mentioned above (the cou- ple), and he therefore repaid the debt in the form of the field that he had put up as security. Both the lenders and the borrower understood this. the transaction was completed, and the two lenders (the couple) rented (lit. offered) the field to the lama on the basis that he and they would each keep half of the harvest. But subsequently, over a period of three or four years, the shameless chökyab Dorje forcibly (bal shed kyi[s]) harvested the field at night, and took away the yield. the matter was investigated but was not settled. for many years the people of tshug had not received taxes for this field: it had been quite impossible to pay them (nges ma nus song); and therefore [the lama] said, “you villagers should remove this field [from my possession] and keep it,” and the people of te and tshug agreed to the matter. But because the details of the matter were not fully settled, a dispute arose and the matter was taken to court. regarding the preparations for returning the field, the lama first explained to the two above-mentioned lenders his own position (rang ltar gyis slang mo) and that of the court (dpon khrims), and said, “you should discuss what you will do”. following a discussion on the part of the two money-lenders, the field’s owners, they asked him to try to retrieve as much of the debt [owed by chökyab Dorje] as possible [through the courts], and, applying the best possible strategy if it were possible to keep the field without losing it, whatever expenses the lama may have had in terms of costs and minor expenses (lit. beer price), they would repay it. if it should happen that they did not repay it, they said that they would not ask for whatever the cost of the field might be, but that since it is the case that the dispute over the field was taken to the subba man and to the court, if they did not pay according to the decision that was made, they will give it to the lama, without refusal, to be his as long as the world age endures, till the white snow mountain Kailash melts, until lake manasarovar dries out, until the crow turns white, until the blue river flows uphill, till red fades, and without sediment brought up from the deep or recollected issues being raised anew, in confirmation that they will not diverge from this agreement grandfather sonam norbu willingly sets his mark; grandmother sangye mindzom willingly sets her mark. the witnesses to this are grandfather Pema rigdzin and Karma chökyab of tshognam, the nobleman ramjor of Kyukar. the scribe was the anchorite sangye tshecu of Purang, who sets his mark.

The sale of a field to lama Ösal Dorje by Chökyab Dorje in 1879 is recorded in Ut/08, but this is clearly a different field. although some passages in the text remain uncertain, it seems likely that the gist is as follows: Chökyab Dorje of Tshug owed money to a couple from Te, Sonam and Sangye Mindzom. Because he defaulted on the debt he forfeited the field, in tshug, that he had put up as security. The new owners then made an arrangment with lama Ösal Dorje to rent him this field according to the standard arrangment whereby the lessee plants and harvests the field and gives the lessor half the yield as rent. this would be in the new owners’ interest, since tshognam, where the lama lived, is much closer to tshug than te is, and since he already owned fields in tshug it would not have been inconvenient for him to have an additional plot of land there. The forefeit of his field notwithstanding, chökyab Dorje continued to harvest it clandestinely. the tepa owners and lama Ösal Dorje, the lessee, were of course both losing from this situation, but so too was the community of tshug, which apparently accepted that taxes could not be paid on a field of which the yield disappeared in the night. The lama seems to have decided to terminate the lease agreement, but there is some suggestion that he may not have been able to do so, perhaps because the lease may have been binding for a fixed period of years. By agreement with the field’s owners and the community of Tshug, he himself appears to have brought a legal case against chökyab Dorje, and the main purpose of this document seems to have been as an assurance by the owners that they would cover all the legal and incidental costs he incurred in the course of the case. Why he, as the lessor, should have gone to court rather than the owners is not certain, except that—as is clear from other documents in the archive—he had a good deal of experience with legal processes and was probably well connected.

Line 5, ’bun tshur: see UTsh/08, note.
Line 20, bsu bha sman, “Subbā Man”: the translation is very tentative, and it is not at all clear whom this name is meant to designate. The holder of the salt monopoly in 1888 was ram Prasad Thakali, the son-in-law of Patiram of the Thakali Serchan clan. the branch of the Serchans that dominated the monopoly was descended from a certain Balbir, and the names of almost all his male descendants ended with “-man”. another powerful figure at this time—and someone who certainly held the monopoly not long after ram Prasad Thakali—was a Gurung named Manilal. for a summary of the history of the salt monopoly and the main stakeholders, see especially Vinding 1998: 75–92.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 16

Date: earth Bull year, 1st month, 15th day (1889)
Lines: 6
Script: ’khyug

Loan agreement between samdrub of gyaga who has borrowed 3 ’bo khal and 18 zo ba of grain from Kamishag of Tshognam against a security of two fields. If he cannot repay the loan within 25 days he will forfeit the fields.

1. sa mo ’glang lo zla ba dang po ’i tshes 15 la tshogs rnaṃ bka’ mi shegs nas gyags kha bsaṃ grubs lags tu
2. ’bru skags zo bod khal gsuṃ dang zo ba bcoyad (bco brgyad) song ’dzin bde ’i ’bang do bzhing ngos rtsa kyu rtsa
3. gnyis yin zla ba 2 pa’i tshe 10 la sbyang mi thub na dgong gi zhing gnyis ’bud tshong 1s
4. gyu dchod spa yin ’don phya ’di las mi gyur spa bsaṃgrubs (bsam grubs) rang thad gyid
lags brtags X bde yi
5. mcha’ spang la bu chung yod |
6. lcags rtags zla tshes la rtsis phyogs byas nas se khal 1 dang
7. zo ba bzhis las yod |

1. glang lo; lag tu 2. ’bo khal; de’i banḍhak zhing 3. gong gi zhing gnyis spus (?) tshong 4. chod pa yin; don rtsa; mi ’gyur ba; rang ’thad kyis lag rtags; de yi 5. cha dpang 6. lcags stag 7. bzhi las

15th day of the 1st month in a female earth ox year. 3 ’bo khal and 18 zo ba of grain have gone from Kamishag of tshognam to the hands of samdrub of gyaga. the security for this [loan] are the fields named ngötsa and Kyutsa. if [samdrub] is unable to repay the loan by the 10th day of the 2nd month [in 25 days’ time] the two fields shall be considered to have been sold. samdrub willingly sets his mark to confirm that this arrangement should not be altered. the witness to this is Buchung.
    — day of the — month in an Iron Tiger year. as far as accounts are concerned, 1 se khal and 4 zo ba are still left [to be paid].

The borrower apparently repaid enough of the debt not to forfeit his fields, but by the time the second part of this document was written, in the following year (iron tiger 1890), slightly less than half of the grain he had borrowed had yet to be returned. note: 1 ’bo khal = 20 zo ba; 1 se khal = 30 zo ba: the quantity borrowed was 78 zo ba, and 34 zo ba are still owed. after the signatures, however, there is an appendix, dated iron tiger year (the year after the document was originally drawn up), to the effect that 1 se khal and 4 zo ba are still to be repaid. the fact that a part of the loan was still to be repaid the following year suggests that some arrangement between the two parties other than the forfeit of the two fields was made in the interim.

Line 1, bka’ mi shegs: a woman’s name combining Nep. kāmi, “blacksmith”, with shegs, the Seke feminine suffix shag.
Line 2, skags zo: the document specifies that the original loan was measured in skags zo, presumably signifying the standard zo ba size for Kag. concerning other volumetric measures, see Introduction.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 17

Date: iron tiger year, 4th month, 10th day, thursday (1890)
Lines: 11
Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Declaration by Phurba Angmo of transfer of ownership of her house and other property to her son, Ösal Dorje. according to the terms of the transfer, Ösal Dorje should also clear the debts owed by Phurba Angmo, and provide her with a lifelong maintenance.

1. lcags stags zla pa bzhi pa’i tshes 10 re gza’ phur pa la | tshogs gnaṃ a ma phur pa ang mo nas ’bu rtsa blaṃ (bla ma) ’od sal rdoe (rdo rje) la khang pa
2. ’og gis rtsa ba gram nas rtse mo dar lcog thugs la phyi nor nang nor gang yod gi phog dang | sa zhing phar len brgyu tshur bun len yod pa sbyang rgyu ma zad nga gad
3. mo las mi nyus pa dug pas bde tham cad rtsis bzhes nas nga nam shi gyag phe gos legs bu len sbyang rgyu yod pa rnaṃs kyang sbyang rog mdzod zer
4. nas zla tshes dgong ltar gis tshes la phog sprod phul pa la | khang ba gcig | zla ra gnyis | zhing che chung gnyis | bung mo gcig | stab
5. kya gcig | sla nga gcig | zang chung gcig | bha krug pa gcig | sgaṃ gnyis | lcag kyad gcig | dza ma bzhi | bras gcig bcas yod rtsis bzhes
6. bzhus pa dang | sbyang rgyu yod pa la | shri (sha ri?) zla pa chung ba la tsha bod khal 2 dang zo pa bdun gyi nas dgong bcuṃ (bcu gsum) sbyang dgos | bsted ka mi choskyabs (chos skyabs) la dngul
7. gsuṃ bcu sos lnga rbed lo 2 bces sbyang dgos yod | bsted tshi rin sri thar dngul bcuig (bcu gcig) sbyang dgos | bsted jo mo nyima (nyi ma la) dngul 5 sbyang dgos | mar lpags
8. sad ltogs la tsha bod khal gcig sbyang dgos | krug bcad bri bra kar cung la khang pa zo dus kyi pa’i bras kyis tsha bod khal 5 dang zo pa 19 sbyang dgos |
9. bsted dkon mchog la rgyab ras zo ba 10 sbyang dgos | bsted go rdol la brgyab ras zo pa 10 nas zo pa 5 tshil lu zo pa gang gi rin sbyang dgos | smon
10. thang ha ri ba tshi ring rdoe (rdo rje) la bung gu rin ṭam 15 len brgyu yod bzhus | zla tshes bzang po phog phul pa’i dge legs bde’i phya spang bzhu dren mdzad tshugs
11. tshi ring chos skyabs yin | phya spang bsted ka mi chos skyabs | bsted tshi ri sri thar bcas gsum bzhugs | yig bris bsted dbon po tshul khrims yin legs ||

1. lcags stag; bu tsha; ’gram nas; thug la; len rgyu; nga rgad 3. mi nus pa ’dug; de thams cad; rgyags phye gos lag bu lon; sbyang rogs 4. gong ltar gyi; dara gnyis; bong mo 4.–5. tabkye gcig; zangs chung; batrug (nD < bal dkrug; see note); lcags sgyed; rdza ma; brad gcig 6. zhus pa; tshwa ’bo khal; nas gong 7. so lnga bed; bcas sbyang 8. krug bcad ṭhiṭa 9. gyabre (< rgya bra) zo ba 10. bong bu; len rgyu yod zhus; de’i cha dpang zhu ’dren 11. cha dpang

Thursday, the 10th day of the 4th month in an Iron Tiger year. on the date specified above I, mother Phurpa angmo of tshognam, have given over (phog sprod phul) to my son lama Ösal Dorje the lower house, from the foundations at the bottom to the prayer flag at the top, as well as whatever external and indoor property there might be, as well as my fields, and all that is owed to me by others, and my debts that he shall pay. And furthermore, since i am now an old woman and unable to work, once he has taken possession of all these things, i have asked him to provide me with sustenance and clothing until my death and to pay all the debts I owe. I have given him one house; two cattle pens; one big and one small field; one female donkey; one saucepan; one roasting pan; one small copper vessel; one bronze drinking bowl; two boxes; one iron tripod; four earthenware pots, and one rake. he should pay the following: to Dawa the younger of shari, 13 [zo ba] of barley as the price of one ’bo khal and 7 zo ba of salt; to Kemi Chökyab of te, 35 rupees and two years’ worth of interest; to tshering hrithar of te, 11 rupees; to the nun nyima of te, 5 rupees; to Setog of Marpha, one ’bo khal of salt; to the young man (dri dra < nep. ṭhiṭa?) Karcung of Tukche, for the rice he lent me when I was building the house, 5 ’bo khal and 19 zo pa of salt; to Könchog of Te, 10 zo ba of sweet buckwheat; to Godol of te, 10 zo ba of sweet buckwheat, 5 zo ba of barley and 1 zo ba of fat; Hariwa Tshering Dorje of Monthang owes us 15 ṭam for the hire of our donkey. May the transfer of property that has taken place on this auspicious day be blessed. The one who convened the witnesses is Tshering Chökyab of Tshug, and he, Kami Chökyab of Te and Tshering Hrithar of Te are the three witnesses. The scribe is Önpo Tshultrim of Te.

One of the debts comprises 5 bod khal (< ’bo khal) of salt in return for rice provided by someone from tukche while the house that Ösal Dorje is about to inherit was being built, and that the debt to the Marpha creditor also consists of salt. This is because debts of rice incurred from people of Marpha and Thag were normally repaid in the form of salt—a form of long-term barter.
    The identity of the scribe is interesting, since it indicates that the Önpo (dBon po) clan, which has now disappeared, was still present in te at this time. Regarding the antecedents and migration of this clan, see Tibetan Sources 1: HMA/Te/Tib/01.

Line 5, bha krug < bal dkrug: this type of vessel is generally known in tibetan by the term li phor, “bronze cup”. the emended orthography is based on a suggestion by nD that the smt term batrug may originally have denoted a type of wooden bowl that was made in Kathmandu (bal) by a process of lathing (dkrug pa), and later applied to bronze vessels. in support of this theory it may be noted that the local term for a certain type of copper jug is rdza khog, lit. “clay jug”, suggesting that older terms were transferred to new utensils.

HMA/UTsh/Tib/ 19r

Date: Iron Tiger year, 12th month, 17th day, Thursday (1890)
Lines: 5; single-line title on verso
Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field in tshug to lama Ösal Dorje for 25 rupees.

tshug stang naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) zhing yigelgs (yi ge legs) |

1. lcag stags zla 12 ba’i tshes 17 re gza’ 5 la | tshog gnaṃ blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) dangs | tshugs steng ma a kyis naṃkha’ (nam mkha’)
2. gnyis gzhing | nyo tshong byas pa bskor | gzhing thar khog phu zo pa do sa rin la dngul 25 byas nas | kho rog kar po naṃ gyur
3. rtsang chu sngon mo gyen log bskal pa mdang nyi ma naṃ gnas bar du spu gter nyo tshong byas pa phyi su snyad tsher mi snyan brang skad
4. rtsam med zhus pa don tshig ’di la mi ’gal pa a kyis naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rang thad rtags X bde’i cha spang tshugs srid thar tshi ring dang kun’ (kun dga’) phun
5. tshogs gnyis zhugs | yig bri nga/bu rang yin |

1. lcags stag; rdo rje dang 2. gnyis zhing; pa skor; zhing tharkhog; dkar po nam ’gyur 3. bskal pa dang; spu bster; phyis su brnyas gtser; sbrang skad 4. tsam med; de’i cha dpang 5. gnyis bzhugs; yig ’bri

Document concerning the field of Namkha of Tshug Teng[ma].

Thursday, the 17th day of the 12th month in an Iron Tiger year. Lama Ösal Dorje of Tshognam and father Namkha of Tengma, in Tshug, have undertaken a transaction regarding a field. [The lama] has paid 25 rupees for a field (or fields) in the Upper Tharkog area with a seed capacity of 2 zo ba. Until the crow turns white, till the blue river flows uphill, for as long as the world age and the sun endure, this transaction has been concluded. In the future let no one utter unpleasant, contentious words so much as the buzzing of a fly. To confirm that this agreement shall not be altered, Father Namkha willingly sets his mark. The witnesses to this are Hrithar Tshering and Kunga Phuntshog of Tshug. I myself (or, [the lama’s?] son) was the scribe.

For an enquiry into the identity of the author of this document based on an analysis of the handwriting, see Helman-Ważny and Ramble 2017.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 19v

see the text above in HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 19r

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 21

Date: earth Dog year, 5th month, 3rd day, monday (1898)

Lines: 8

Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field to lama Ösal Dorje in partial repayment of an outstanding debt.

1. sa khyi zla pa lnga ba’i tshes 3 res gza’ zla pa la | tshog rnams bla ma ’od gsal rdo je la tshugs ga ra dun 'grub dang phur dpal mo
2. nang tshangs gnyis zhing ltabs la rin brgyab byas ’don dngul rnying ma rnaṃs byang ma rnus pa la brten nas bzhags dus lan gnyis gsuṃ byas
3. bā sbyangs ma thub par kho bo nang tshang gnyis nas zhinges (zhing bzhes?) rog mdzod zhus nas zhing ltab zo pa 6 sa’i rin dngul gsar rnying sdom dngul dgu
4. bcu tham pa dang tsha thag zo bod khal bzhi byas pa yin | de la gang ti se naṃ bzhu tsho ma spang naṃ skam kho rogs skar pos naṃ gyur
5. [r?]tsang chu sngon mo gyen logs skal ba naṃ stong bar tshar pa yin la | de la phyis su mi ngo su thad snyad tshor dmar po tshos logs rnyogs
6. pa lding log dran daṃ sar skyed dbu slang rang skad rtsam mi zhu bzhus pa ga ra dun grub rang thad rtags thebo (the bo) (seal) phur pa dpal mo rang thad
7. rtags thebo (mthe bo) (seal) ’de’i phya spang gter tshe dbang nor bu tshog rnaṃs karma tshugs bso ma kun dga’ phunogs (phun tshogs) zhugs pas rtags X
8. yig dri po’ rang X


2. nang tshang; dngul rnying; sbyang ma nus; zhag dus 3. ’ba’ sbyang; rogs mdzod 4. tshwas thag; gangs ti; mtsho ma; rogs po; khorog (smt < pho rog) dkar po nam 5. gyen log bskal pa; brnyas gtser; tshos log; 6. gting log; ’dran gtam gsar skye ’ur lang sbrang skad; rang ’thad

Monday, the 3rd day of the 5th month in an earth Dog year. concerning the sale of a tab field to lama Ösal Dorje of tshognam by gara Döndrub and Phurpa Palmo of tshug. Being unable to repay [to the lama] the debt they owed in the past, and still not being able to pay [even though] two or three later repayment deadlines were set, the couple said [to the lama] “Please, buy (lit. take) it”, and with the payment for the tab field that has a seed capacity of 6 zo ba, the total of the old and new monies [given by the lama] comes to 90 rupees and 4 ’bo khal (measured in thag zo ba) of salt.

    This transaction has been concluded [and will endure] until mt Kailash melts and lake manasarovar dries up and the crow turns white and the blue river flows uphill and the world ages end. and with regard to that, in the future no one may say anything contentious, nor shall the colour red fade or sediment be raised from the deep or issues that are remembered brought up anew, or any contentious words be uttered so much as the buzzing of a fly, and to this gara Dundrub willingly sets his thumbprint and his seal; Phurpa Palmo willingly sets her thumbprint and her seal. the witnesses to this, tshewang norbu of te, Karma of tshognam and soma Kunga Phuntshog of tshug, set their marks.

The size of the outstanding loan is not stated, but it seems that the value of the field is greater than the outstanding sum, and the lama has paid an unspecified amount of cash and/or barley to make up its value.

Line 4, thag zo bod khal: see introduction, section on weights and measures.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 23

Date: fire horse year, 2nd month, 15th day, monday (1906)

Lines: 13

Script: ’khyug

Agreement by seven nuns of te that, following their recent expulsion from their previous convent in tshug, they will henceforth be under the tutelage of the lama of tshognam.

1. me rta zla pa 2 pa’i tshes 15 re gza’ zla pa nyin mcho[d] tshig yige (yi ge) ’bris don la | gter joo (jo mo) nyima (nyi ma) sgrol
2. [ma] joo (jo mo) sti^n (bstan ’dzin) chos [1S] | joo (jo mo) nyima (nyi ma) joo (jo mo) spa [sang] | phur bu chos mdzom | suṃ mchog sgr[o]l
3. ma | joo (jo mo) dngruob (dngos grub) dbang mo | jo chung sheb (shes rab) dbang mo bcas som mdzoms tshugs mgon joo (jo mo) spyi nas lag
4. drud byas phyir ston yong mi dgos zer nas ston par byas {1S} pa yin bsten la | blaṃ (bla ma) tshog dgongs
5. su grigs bzhugs ’rgyal khrims bzhes sgo bka’ ’bul chos sgral la bzhugs | slar phyin bya ba leg
6. nyes dge ’dug byi ltar ’byung rung nga min kho yin pha zhag bu skel la sogs mi nyen grangs
7. skad byas phyin mi ’thus pas skyid ’dug gcig yin ma tog gnyis med pa rang rang slo glang
8. seṃs rgyud rang thad kyi mi res ngo res rtags la | joo (jo mo) nyima (nyi ma) rang thad rtags X bsti^n (bstan ’dzin) chos mdzom
9. rang thad rtags X {1S} joo (jo mo) nyima (nyi ma) rang thad rtags X joo (jo mo) spa bsang rang thad rtags X phur bu chos mdzom
10. rang thad rtags X suṃ mchog sgrol ma rang thad rtags | dngruob (dngos grub) dbang mo rang thad rtags X sheb (shes rab) dbang mo
11. rang thad rtags the po X bdoen’i (bdon de’i) phya spang gter phur bu don grub | nor bu dgra ’dul gnyis
12. bzhugs |

1. chod tshig 3. som (?) ’dzom tshugs dgon; ’bud nas 4. phyir bton; ’don par; rten la 5. sgrigs zhugs rgyal; kābul chos gral; bya ba legs 6. dge sdug ji ltar; pha gshags bu ’gel; mi snyan sbrang 7. skyid sdug; ma gtogs; blos blangs 8. rang ’thad 9. rang ’thad 10. rang ’thad 11. cha dpang


Monday, the 15th day of the 2nd month in a fire horse year. the purpose of writing this document of agreement is as follows. the nuns named nyima Drolma, tenzin cho[—], nyima, Pa[sang], Phurbu chödzom, sumchog Drolma, and ngodrub angmo, together with the junior nun sherab angmo, all from te, have been dragged outside by the nuns of tshug convent, who expelled them with the notification that they need not come back. this document represents an undertaking by the nuns that henceforth they should be affiliated with the temple of Upper tshognam, and the lama is in favour of this. henceforth, however well or badly they may behave, there should be no shifting of blame (lit. not me but her), false accusation (lit. falsely burdening the son with the guilt of the father) and so forth, or any unpleasant words so much as the buzzing of a fly, but all should act in a way that is consistent with a single, undivided community.
    The document is signed by the seven nuns and two witnesses from te.

The tshug convent in question is gönpa gang (dgon pa sgang), the now-abandoned temple on the west bank of the Kali gandaki opposite tshug. the reason for the expulsion of the te nuns is not given. the nuns of tangbe were also once associated with gönpa gang, but transferred their allegiance to a convent that was newly built in their own village. the reason given for the split was the danger of crossing the Kali gandaki (one of the tangbe nuns was swept away to her death), but the separation led to acrimony between the two communities. for fur- ther remarks on the association of the nuns of te with gönpa gang, see also Ut/36, commentary.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 24

Date: fire horse year ?; month and date not given (1906?)

Lines: 6; one-line title on verso

Script: ’khyug

Contract for a loan of 100 pāthi of grain to a woman of tshug from a tepa man, at a rate of 25 per cent interest.

gan ’dzin mdor sdus su ’bul snying

1. me rta (?) zla tshes la gan ’dzin mdor bsdus su ’bul snying don tsa tshugs nang dag ma
tshang phyog nas sted pa bsod nams 1
2. can la ’di lo’i ’son rtsa dang bu ’phrug gso skyong bya rgyu sogs gang ci’i lag ce kha sduṃ min la brten nas bru bun gnang rogs
3. dbu len tshar btsugs zhus pa ’d[e] don cing bkrin son par ’bru ngo pa sti 100 | thaṃ pa la skyed ’phri bzhi mas/chas lnga ’gro ’phri ’thus su
4. phun tshogs lags nas | ’di lo ston dus su rdo zha phugs sog kyi gser lhad med pa ngo skyed grang tshangs gtshang ’bul zhu rgyu ’di don las naṃs
5. yang mi ’gal zhing | ’gal =i= nga min kho yin kha gcig lce gnyis | bsaṃ btang dran skyed des dus de min sogs kyi ’gal cha
6. ’gro rigs shar tshes ’ba’ bla dpon Zdgong ma’i bka’ ji tsal ltar gtsang sgrubs zhu rgyu’i bdag bsod nams gyi spyi lags bskor ba’i rtags |

A brief written contract (’gan ’dzin) presented on the —day of the —month. tshangchog, a housemistress (nang dag ma < nang bdag mo?) of tshug, has asked sonamcan of te to make her a loan of 100 pāthi of grain as her means of livelihood for this year and to take care of her child[ren]. she agrees that at the harvest time this year she will repay the loan in the form of wheat that is unadulterated by stones, moisture or chaff at a ratio of 4:5, i.e. 25 per cent. there shall be no violation of this agreement; no reciprocal accusation; no acting as if one had two tongues in one mouth; no new raising of recollected issues.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 25

Date (given on last line): fire sheep year, 10th month, 17th day (1907?)

lines: 26

script: ’khyug ma tshugs

remarks: first line missing because of damage to paper.

A legal petition submitted to the court of Baragaon, in lower lo by trogyal of Dzar. the petitioner accuses Ösal Dorje and four other people of beating and robbing him, threatening to kill him with black magic, and falsely accusing him of poisoning someone.

1. glo smad bha ra gha hung kyi a smal bka’ rtsar ’du | bka’ khrim zhu ba’i don la | ngos dzar ’dod mi khro ’rgyal =ds kho bo tshog snam ’dod mi
2. ’od gsal (rdoe) rdo rje —1 | kho bas ’bu namkha’ (nam mkha’) 1 | kun mdzom—1 | {1S} sted nyi ma bsam sgrubs—1 | tshugs mo bka’ mi shags bcas mi ngo lnga nas khrim med kyi bdung ’zhur byas
3. khrogs bcas shaṃ gsal don byas ma zod bar bka’ khrim ’phul ba’i nang bsnying don rtsa | steng skya’i grong nang kyi mi tsang yin kho bo khro gyal [±4s]
4. [2–3s] zhag yod tshod la ’di thog [1s] kyi phyi phral dang dgos [±5s] yang Zzhabs kyi nang ’phral bcas la phul [2s] byung skyad kyang [1s?]
5. khyod kyi dngul slang nas ngos kyi grong mi ’di dang dzar sku ’dzaṃ lag brgyud phar mdzong zhes khod kyi phyags rtaṃ slebs rtan | daṃ ’gru ’di thad bla ma kho bor [1s]
6. grong ’dzin phyir slang kyi glo bo ’rgyal ’zhabs su rtsi ’bul zhu rgyu’i don dang [1s] byud bcas kyi tshong phran yod skor bsong zhes [1s] legs sku zhab ’dzling (’dzam gling) gling nas [1s]
7. ’babs ltar song ste kho bor sgo rtar sleb skabs | dgongs ltar dngul dang =gs [1s] ’phebs dugs pa sdin (nD sdi ltar) mdzad bris bas | ngos kyis dbu zug stang nas ska= [1s]
8. {1s} na yod pa ’dir phebs zer ’dugs pa | ’di don zhin bshaṃ sal phya dpang 1s kho ba naṃkha’ (nam kha’) rtsar phyin nas | dngul brgydng (brgyad dang) phyag rtaṃ sprad pa rtsis len gyi phyag
9. rtaṃ ltas dngul a bhag nang dag tshar ’rjes | ngos dge lung na slebs dgos zer ring bas bu mo rtsa byed bris pas bu mo khrid zer nas blos sleng kha thun
10. [1–2s] sdi nas [1s] yar gang 1s slebs pa dang | ngos mi 1 la khoo (kho bo) dgong khod rnams ngos nas kho bo naṃkha’i (nam mkha’i) ngos kyi kyis skra nas bzung ste spi | res kas mgo nas [1s?]
11. res ka rkang pa nas bzungs ste gang gyel du g.yugs nas skra spi u kri zhur dogs ste zhur grang mang byas ste ngos dran med la yud rtsam song ba dang | ngos kyis a bhag bugs

12. na byi ru dogs che chung sdom nyiu (nyi shu) rtsa gnyis dang dngul lnga yod pa bcas ’khyer nas song gdugs pa | ngos kyang mi mang mi gcig yong bstabs bka’ khrim zhu gro bsaṃ nas a
13. ci nang na log nas dad pas | yang kho bo ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) pha bu rnaṃs sgong star yong nas khyod kyi mi la gdug gter nas bsad yod zer mi ’od gsal rdo rje yin |
14. ’di dus kyis phya dpang yang yod lags | ’di nas kho bo rnams logs nas rang nang song rje ngos kyang rta bzhon nas ngos nang phyogs yong skabs | kho bo pha bu thog khar thon na
15. ring na zla bdun nye na zhag dun bar la khyod mi brgyu phyugs 3 med pa zo ma thub na nga yang pha bu 2 gyis min ma bog zer ’byung | ’di dus bya spang yang yod do
16. gsal ltar dngul rtsis len byas ste bu mo blo slang kyis sprad nas | logs === brags nas mi dngul gnyis ’dzin mi phyogs pa dang ngos mi 1 la dgongs gsal rnaṃs
17. rub ste mdung zhur skra bcas spi mi dran med nas zos nas a bhags kyi byi ru dngul bcas ’khyer bstor bka’ khrim kyis nye ba snang nas bi khu phyir log byor rnang
18. yod pa dang mdug sprad nas mi bsad zer pas bskor la | mi bsad ’di dus kyi khung skyel ra sprod byed brgyu yod bshags la | khung skyel ra sprod byed brgyu mi dugs
19. na mi dkar la zha nag lta’u staṃ chen po dza rta ri shad mi phyogs pas | ’di thogs bka’ khrim stong na yul srol kyis ’byor/’byar pa bzhu rgyu | zhag bdun nas zla bdun
20. kyis bar la mi rgyu phyugs gsuṃ med bar zo brgyu zer skor | ngos kyi skra bcas spi nas khyer pas bzhi pas mthu gtad dar drags po’i dmags brten ngan pas rkun gsod ji
21. bgyi rgyu yod pa bka’ khrim kyi nyes chad dang | kho ba bzhag po’i zhag dus 1s kyi mi brgyu phyugs gsuṃ kyis g.yon khag kho bar ’gro min kyi bka’ khrim
22. kho bo pha bu bcas dgong gsal rnaṃs gang chang kyis | gshaṃ gsal phya dpang bka’ dri thog | en dang yul srol kyi bka’ khrims ’byor snang yod pa
23. mkhyeen (mkhyen mkhyen) | dgongs don tshang ma grang gtaṃ ma rtogs sdzun rtaṃ med sdzun bar song tshe bka’ khrim nang zhin nyes zhu rgyu’i rtags | phya spang la —
24. [tapsil?]
25. brag dkar spen ba — 1 | tshogs rnaṃs dkar phyi — 1 | sted stag lha — 1 | spu rang ang
rgyal — 1 | sted kun’ (kun dga’) khyi skyabs — 1 |
26. tshugs spen pa lha mo 1 | tshugs mdzom pa — 1 | tshugs brags dkar bka’ shegs — 1 | bcas yod lags | me lugs zla 10 pa’i tshe 17 bzang por phul pa’i ltab shil |

1. bāhragāũ; amāl kacahari; bka’ khrims; sdod mi 2. rdung gzhu byas 3. ’phrog bcas; ma gzod par bka’ khrims; snying don 4. phyi khral; nang khral 5. dngul blangs; phyag tham bslebs rten 6. song zhes; sku zhabs 7. zer ’dug 8. don bzhin sham gsal cha dpang 9. tham ltas; am phrag nang; tshar rjes; blos blangs kha mthun 10. ’bud re ’ga’ 11. re ’ga’; nas bzung; gan rkyal du g.yug; skra ’bud; utri (smt) gzhu rdog; gzhu grangs; yud tsam; am phrag sbug 12. byi ru rdog; song ’dug; yong stabs bka’ khrims zhu ’gro 13. bsdad pas; gong ltar yong; dug ster nas 14. dus kyi cha dpang; log nas; son rjes; rta zhon; nang phyogs;; ’thon khar ’thon; cha dpang yang 16. blo blangs kyis; ’phrogs nas; mi chog; gong gsal 17. rub ste; rdung gzhu; skra bcad ’bud; bzos nas am phrag gi; ’khyer stor bka’ khrims; nyes pa gnang bas; bikhu (smt < nep.?) phyir 18. dug sprad; skor la; khungs skyel; rgyu’i mi ’dug 19. zhwa nag; gtam chen; dza rta ri < nep.?; shod mi chog; thog bka’ khrims; zhu rgyu 20. bzo rgyu; skra bcad ’bud nas ’khyer; dar drag po’i dmag rten ngan?; kun gsod 21. bka’ khrims; zhag po’i; mi rgyu phyugs; yongka (smt < g.yong kha?) bka’ khrims 22. gong gsal; sham gsal cha dpang dka’ ’dri; ain dang; ’byor gnang 23. gong don; drang gtam ma gtogs rdzun gtam; bka’ khrims nang bzhin; cha dpang 26. me lug; phul ba’i tapsil


Lines 1–3
To the government court of Baragaon, in lower low. the subject of this legal petition is as follows. clearly set out below is an account of how these five people: Ösal Dorje, a resident of tshognam; his son, namkha; Kundzom; nyima samdrub of te, and Kemesha, a woman of tshug, did, in a lawless manner, beat and rob me, trogyal, who live in Dzar. since i was unwilling to put up with that, i have brought this legal case.

Lines 3–10
The account given in this passage is a complicated one, and since the text is damaged in a number of critical places it is not possible to reconstruct a coherent narrative. the passage refers to the settlement of tangkya, two days’ walk to the north of tshognam, and a disagreement over the payment of “internal” and “external” taxes.

translation contd.
Line 10–26
The lama’s son namkha grabbed me by the hair. some of them seized me by the head and oth- ers by my legs and forced me to the ground. they pulled my hair and kicked me repeatedly and for a short time i lost consciousness. in the folds of my garment i had twenty-two corals of varying size and five rupees. these they stole from me, and left. i thought that, since they were many people against one, i should bring a case against them, and went to my sister’s house. But in the evening lama Ösal Dorje and his son came, as before, and accused me of poisoning someone. the person who said that was Ösal Dorje. i have witnesses who heard him say that.
    They then returned, and went home. i also mounted my horse and rode home. But as they were on the point of leaving, they said “if, between a maximum of seven months and a minimum of seven days we are unable to annihilate your family, your property and your cattle, we, father and son, are not the heirs of our name (?)”. there is a witness to this. as explained clearly, after the payment of the money, they gave their daughter freely and willingly [as a servant]. that should not be allowed to seize people and property after robbing... and that those who are named above should have ganged up on me, a single individual person, and after beating me and pulling out my hair and knocked me unconscious, and stealing the corals and money from the fold of my robe—after they have been given a punishment for this according to the law they should return the equivalent value (bi khu). as for them saying that i killed someone by poisoning him/her, they should provide proof of my having killed anyone. if they do not provide evidence, they should not be allowed to tell lies of such great significance, like [the proverb of] the white man with the black hat (see note).
    And on the matter [mentioned earlier in this petition] of them saying to me that, between seven days and seven months from that moment my family, my property and my cattle would be wiped out: they’d pulled out some of my hair and taken it, and the four of them said that they would kill us all with the magical spell called “the evil Warrior-support of the fierce silken cloth”. they should receive a punishment in accordance with the law. they should also receive a penalty for the original fault (g.yon khag < g.yong kha?) of specifying a period with- in which my family, my property and my cattle would be annihilated. on the basis of the tes- timonies of the witnesses named below, i request that the father and the son whose names are clearly given above should receive a judgment in accordance with national law and local custom.

    Everything stated above is nothing but the truth, with no falsehood; and if there should be any falsehood, may i receive a judgment in accordance with the law. to this i set my mark. the witnesses are: Penba of Braga; Karci of tshognam; taglha of te; angyal of Purang; Kunga Khyikyab of te; Penpa lhamo of tshug; Dzompa of tshug; Kasheg of Braga, in tshug. this list was drawn up on an auspicious day, the 17th day of the 10th month in a fire sheep year.

Line 19, mi dkar la zha nag lta’u staṃ chen po dza sta ri, “...lies of such great significance like [the proverb of] the white man with the black hat”. the paraphrase here is highly speculative. the proverb in question is unknown to me; and other than being of probable nepali derivation it is not clear what dza sta ri signifies. the context suggests that it represents a term related to falsehood (e.g. jhuṭei), but this is uncertain.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 26-27

Date: none given, probably 1907

script: ’khyug ma tshugs

lines (Ut/26): 24

A formal reply submitted by Ösal Dorje and four others to the complaint made against them in Ut/25.

Note: Ut/26 is severely damaged in places, rendering important parts of the text unreadable. Ut/27 is clearly a rough draft of the same document, and although its meaning in unclear in various places because of erasures and intercalated text, its physical condition is better. the following transliteration takes Ut/26 as the base text, and where possible fills lacunae by inserting material from Ut/27. the inserted material is presented between asterisks (*...*).
1. [±13s] *glo smad bha ra gha’ung gis a smal bka’ rtsar ’du | bka’ khrim bzhus ’don ngos tshogs gnam...* zhus len | ngos tshogs rnaṃs ’dod mi ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) — 1 | ’bu naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) — 1
2. [±14s] *kun mdzom 1 nyi ma bsam sgrubs 1 tshug jo mo bka’ shegs 1 bcas mi lnga’i ming...* [ngo]s mi lnga’i ming su kho bo dzar khro rgyal pas rdzun stong pha ribs hang song
3. gis bka’ khrims bul len | don rtsa ’byung khung ’phrul med bzhu ba la | teng skya’i bu mo 1 yod pa grong bzhung mi rtsa yin dang dngul brgyad bha dho zhag
4. yod tshod glo rgyal nas jo bdzam sling la snang ’byung zer pa dang sgo slebs jhi=/dhi= bye= dang | * jir byed dang* ngos nas ’bu zhing song zer rgyu phar zhag smig mthongs rtsams
5. [±1] =i su nang = tshugs steng mas snya na zhing smos sar ’dad yod pa [1–2s] spa khro rgyal—1 spu rang ang rgyal 1—sted stag la—1 rjes
6. rdzong zla pa—1 bcas dpung ’debs kyis ’bu mo phrogs grabs byas lag nas drud pa dang | ma rtang ’dzin nas ngos ’bun dngul 75 thog la bu mo’i a kyis tshi ring
7. s[r]i [tha]r kyis ’bu mo khrid nas tshogs gnaṃ du skyel [1s] =o= [±4s] zhin ±13s *skyel du yong nas da lta chung dus bsos bzhin che dus bla ma yab sras kyis zhabs bstog ’phul yong zer ba’i bshad pa sgo bzhin a kyi dus kyi yig ge cha spang kyang yod la ma tshad lo 5 nas bzung da lta’...*
8. nas da lta’i ’bar la glo rgyal bdas steng yul rigs su nas kyang phral rig zha chags ’byung bskor bshad pa nge ma sgo bzhin | sa’u gzhan rigs nas ’bun
9. thog phros slang ’byung ba la len thebs nas ngos rtsar da ’bar bzhag pa yin bzhes bshad nas kyang ma nyan par | bu mo lag drud nas khyer zer dugs pa

10. mi stang zer ’dzin pas ’gro zer gang khrid yongs pas bzhing dgu ’bud [1s?] *bzhing dgu bung tsham...* khong gong gsal mi ngo rnaṃs nas ngos ’bur dung zhur skra spi dren med zos kha
11. nas gang ’dod bshed ’byung ba phar bzhag nas | ngos mi lnga nas khro rgyal skra spi go bzung brkang zin gang gyel dbu ’dre dogs zhur dren med zos nas
12. am bhag nang byur dog ches chung 22 dngul 5 yod pa khyer phrog song zhus pa’i lan | dung zhur skra spi dren med byu ru dngul sogs phrogs pa yang med ngos mi lngas
13. gang yang byas rgyu phar zhag thub pa yang med | dug gter mi bsad zer pa yang med | zla dun zhag dun nang mi nor phyugs gsuṃ med pa zos rgyu zer
14. ==yung ’=u *zer byung zhus pa* pa med yang | ngos pha bu su nas kyang kha nas bshad pa med | [b]saṃ pa yang med sngon nas byas shes zer pa yang med | dngul brgyad phyag dam krad
15. len byas tshar bzhus pa de yang ngos nas len pa med | dmag mthu gtad ngan rkun bsod byas zer bshad tshul de rnams kho bo’i byas pa nga la bshad
16. na ’ang | kho bo rang gnong skyes pa yin gsheg 2s | 1s [1s] [1?]thu gtad *rang gnong skyes pa ’di yin sna ma tog rang don mthu gtad* dmag ngan rkun gsod nga nas byas nus pa dang | byas pa med
17. byas rgyu bka’ lung shes pa yang med | don med mi nor phyug gsuṃ g.yong khag mi nus pas bka’ khrim ’byor pa mkhyeeen (mkhyen mkhyen mkhyen) | ngos la dung zhur
18. skra spi khyer rgyu phrogs shi na khad med sman logs gter nas mi bsod jo blaṃ (bla ma) mag pa blaṃ (bla ma) gnyis zhus khyed kyis mi nor phyug gsuṃ zla dgu zhag dgu nang
19. med pa zos nus kyis kha bshad byas pa’i don mtshan ma zod gang po bkris (bkra shis) zhu rgyu | nga la dung zhur dgong bshad ltar byas pa kho khro rgyal—1 | spu rang
20. ang rgyal—1 | bsted stags la—1 | rdzong zla pa—1 | ’di rnaṃs ngos kyis ’ja ya yin | sted kun’ (kun dga’) skyi skyab—1 | tshugs spen pa lha mo—1 |
21. khong gnyis dang mdangs kha chams rtsam ma tog sngon nga mdangs mi mthun pas mi yin pas khongs gnyis la mi ’gro | phya spang
22. gzhan rnaṃs bha ti phya spang la ’gro pa yin | dgongs don tshang ma bden pa ma tog rdzun pa med | rdzun du song na bka’ khrim nas nyes chad gang snang kyang
23. men mi zhu pa’i rtags | phya spang la | bster nyim (nyi ma) bsamgrubs (bsam grubs)—1 | tshugs brags kar spen pa—1 | tshogs rnaṃs gar skyid—1 | tshug dzoṃs pa—1 |
24. joo (jo mo?) ka’ gshegs—1 | srang snyed—1 | tshogs rnams phur pa—1 | bcas yod |


1. sdod mi 2. pharep hang song 3. ’bul lan; ’khrul med zhu; grong gzhung; banḍhak bzhag 4. gnang ’byung; ngos nas ’bu zhing song zer rgyu phar bzhag mig mthong rtsam 5. snya na (smt < yar); zhing rmos sar bsdad 6. dpung sdebs; ’phrog grabs; ma btang 7. bu mo’i aki 8. gnas kyang; khral rigs zha chag byung skor; ngas ma go (?) 9. thogtrö slang ’byung ba la lan thebs; zer ’dug 10. mi gtang; yong bas zhing; rdung gzhu skra ’bud dran med 11. ’dod bshad; skra ’bud mgo bzung rkang ’dzin gan rkyal; rdog gzhu dran med bzos 12. am phrag; byur rdog; ’khyer phrog; rdung gzhu skra ’bud dran; ’phrogs pa 13. phar bzhag; dug ster; zla bdun zhag bdun 14. dam sprad (?) 15. zhus pa; dmag mthu gtad ngan kun gsod 17. nor phyugs 19. ma gzod; rdung gzhu gong bshad 21. mdang kha chams rtsam ma gtogs sngon nga dang; khong gnyis; cha dpang 22. bādī cha dpang; gong don; ma gtogs; bka’ khrims; gang gnang 23. men mi zhu; cha dpang la

To the government court in Baragaon, in lower lo. a response from Ösal Dorje to the legal petition that has been submitted. this is a response to the extraordinarily exaggerated account that has been submitted against me, Ösal Dorje, resident of tshognam, my son namkha, Kundzom, nyima samdrub and the nun of tshug named Kasheg (= Kemishag?). this is an account of what really happened. there was a woman of tangkya who was of the main estate (?). the 8 rupees that were placed as a security were given to the noble (? jo) Dzamling by the King of lo (?). apart from the fact that i said that my (?) son had gone to the fields, as soon as [they] saw... was sitting above tshug tengma in an area where fields were being ploughed, trogyal of [Dzar] angyal of Purang, tagla of te, Dawa of Dzong almost teamed up and seized the girl and dragged her by the hand. But [...] did not let her go but held on to her, and for 75 rupees her father tshering hrithar “... take my daugher to tshognam”. When [we?] came to fetch her, her father [drew up] a document to the effect that “just as you take care of her while she is young, when she is older she can serve the lama and his son”: there are witnesses to this. since i did not understand (?) that, for a period of five years, until now, even though (she?) had been residing in places such as De and tangya, there was a shortfall in tax payments, there had been an argument over debts among other money lenders, and after receiving a reply we kept her at our house up to the present day; but even though i explained this, they would not listen. they said they would take the girl, dragging her by the hand, but [her father] said they would not let her go, but they came to drag her somewhere and ... (?) leaving aside the fact that the people named above beat my son, pulled his hair and knocked him unconscious, and said whatever they wanted to; in response the accusation that the five of us pulled trogyal’s hair, held him by the head and feet, knocked him flat on his back and beat him with our fists until he was unconscious, then stole from the folds of his garment 22 pieces of coral of different sizes and 5 rupees: we did not beat him or pull his hair or knock him unconscious; nor did we steal his corals and money. Far from the five of us actually doing anything, we would have been unable to do anything. We did not accuse him of poisoning someone; we did not tell him that in a period between seven months and seven days his fam- ily, his property and his livestock would be annihilated; neither my son nor i said such things, and we did not even consider them; nor did i say that i had done such a thing (or had learned how to do such things) in the past. as for the allegation that a sealed document had been exchanged for 8 rupees, i was certainly not engaged in any such transaction. as for the magical spell called the all-Killing evil Warrior, even if he told me that i had performed this, he was conscious of his own guilt... i’ve never done it and i don’t even know how to do it, and i haven’t had the instructions with which to perform it. there is no substance in this, and it is not possible that this could be the original fault (g.yong kha) that might cause the loss of peo- ple, property or cattle. i request that a judgment be made on this matter.
    (The meaning of the next sentence, ngos la dung zhur...bkra shis zhu rgyu, lines 17–19, is uncertain. The petitioner seems to be saying that he will not put up with the false accusation that he beat the plaintiff and pulled his hair, that a senior lama and a priestly son-in-law (?) accused the plaintiff of poisoning someone, and that he threatened the plaintiff with a magic spell that would annihilate him, his property and his cattle in a period from between nine months and nine days.)
    Those who beat me, as described above, were: trogyal, angyal of Purang; tagla of te, and Dawa of Dzong. the following are my ’ja ya (?): Kunga Kyikyab of te; Penba lhamo of tshug. only yesterday did [my accuser?] make an arrangement with these two; because we had a disagreement in the past i shall not go to them [to ask them to testify] (?). the other wit- nesses are on the side of the plaintiff (lit. “plaintiff-witnesses”). all the above is only the truth, with no falsehood. if there is any falsehood in there, i shall not appeal against any punishment meted out to me by the law, and to this i set my mark. the witnesses are nyima samdrub of te, Pemba of Braga in tshug; garkyi of tshognam, Dzompa of tshug, the nun Ke[mi]shag, hrangnye, and Phurba of tshognam.


Line 8, bdas steng: Detang is the usual contraction when referring collectively to the two set- tlements of De and tangkya.
Line 15, kho bo’i byas pa nga la... “even if he told me that i...”: kho bo and nga have been taken as coreferents, i.e. to Ösal Dorje, whereas the kho bo in line 16 is understood as referring to trogyal.
Line 15, dmag mthu gtad ngan rkun bsod: the name of the magical spell that appears in the three documents Ut/25–27 varies on each occasion, suggesting that it was not something that was particularly well known:
Ut/25, line 20: mthu gtad dar drags po’i dmags brten ngan pas rkun gsod

Ut/26, line 15: dmag mthu gtad ngan rkun bsod
Ut/26, line 16: mthu gtad* dmag ngan rkun gsod
Ut/27, line 17: mthu gtad ngan sngag skun bsod dmag dpung

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 28

Date: fire sheep year, 15th day, 5th month, friday (1907)

Lines: 5

Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field to lama Ösal Dorje by a couple from tshug for 38 rupees.

1. me lug zla 5 pa’i tshe 15 re gza’ spa sangs nyin | tshog dgongs blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) mdang tshugs brag kar rdoe (rdo rje) kar bzang bu mo spen pa bu
2. grigs gsuṃ bzhing stabs zo ba suṃ sa nyo tshongs byas ba’i rin dngul 38 byas na[s] bskal ba dang nyima (nyi ma) naṃ gnas kyi ’bar du tshong nyo byas tshar ba la sgang ti se naṃ zhu
3. tsho ma spang naṃ skam kho rog {1s} kar po naṃ gyur rtsang chu sngon mo gyen log naṃ yong ’bar ’du mi snyan grang skad rtsam zhu sa med zhus pa
4. rdoe (rdo rje) kar zangs rang thad rtags the | bu mo spen pa bu grigs rang thad rtags the X | bdon bde’i phya spang tshugs brag kar ka mi sri thar bsted nyima (nyi ma)
5. bsaṃgrub (bsam grub) gnyis bzhugs | yig ’khod bu stan rgyal bcas yod |

1. pa sangs nyin; dang tshug 2. nyo ’tshong; kyi bar; ’tshong nyo; gangs ti 3. mtsho ma; khorog (smt < pho rog) dkar po; yong bar; sbrang skad tsam 4. rang ’thad rtags; don de’i cha dpang

Saturday, the 15th day of the 5th month in a fire sheep year. lama Ösal Dorje of Upper tshognam [on the one hand] and Dorje Karsang and his daughter Penba Butri of Braga in tshug have engaged in a financial transaction [in which the lama has paid] 38 rupees for the tab field with a seed capacity of 3 zo ba. this transaction shall be conclusive as long as the world ages and the sun endure; and until mt Kailash melts, till lake manasarovar dries up, till the crow turns white and till the blue river flows uphill, no unpleasant words so much as the buzzing of a fly shall be said about the matter. to this agreement Dorje Karzang willingly sets his mark; his daughter Pemba Butri willingly sets her mark; the witnesses to this are Kami hrithar of Braga, in tshug, and nyima samdrub of te. the scribe was [the lama’s] son ten[pa] gyal[tsen].

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 29

Date: earth Bird year, 5th month, 15th day, sunday (1909)

Lines: 6

Script: ’khyug

Confirmation by hrithar tshering of tshug that he has previously sold a field to lama Ösal Dorje, followed by an agreement by the latter that he will provide hrithar tshering with a life-long annual maintenance of 30 zo ba of barley.

1. sa bya zla pa lnga ba’i tshes 15 re gza’ nyima’i nyin / tshog dgongs blaṃ (bla ma) bstan pa’i rgyal^n (rgyal mtshan) tshugs a kyis sri thar tshi rings gnyis bzhing gis yige (yig ge) ’bris ’don la /
2. sngon bla ma ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) dang sri thar gnyis chu stag lor bzhing mda’ sa zo pa 5 sa la rin brgyabs byas dngul 50 mdangs ’bru bod khal 3 sdom nas zhing bde bzhin skal
3. ba naṃ stong kho rog skar po naṃ gyur rtsang chu sngon mo gyen log naṃ yongs ’bar rtsong tshar pa yin / phyin chad dbu lang rang thad rtsam med pa srid thar tshi
4. ring rang thad rtags the se [seal] slar srid thar zhu laṃ byas nas ngos naṃ shi thugs zhing la thog zo pa 30 res gnang thabs yod pa zhus 1s lo res la thog 30 res
5. gnang pa yin ngos shi nas zhing skal pa naṃ stong ’bar dngul 50 mdang ’bru khal 3 la rtsong tshar pa yin / bde la snyed tsher ’brang skad rtsam med zhus pa
6. srid thar tshi ring rang thad rtags the se (seal) gdon bde’i phya spang chos ’khor tshaṃs pa phur pa tshugs srid thar ’gro ma sted kun’ (kun dga’) bsaṃ grub gsuṃ zhugs pa’i rtags X

1. aki sri thar; zhing gi yi ge ’dri don 2. stag lor zhing; rin rgyab; 50 dang ’bru ’bo; bsdoms nas; de bzhin bskal 3. dkar po; nam yong bar; btsong tshar; ’ur lang sbrang skad tsam 4. rang ’thad; thug zhing 5. bskal pa; stong bar; dang ’bru; btsong tshar; de la brnyas gtser sbrang skad tsam med; rang ’thad; don de’i cha dpang; mtshams pa; bzhugs pa’i rtags

Sunday, the 15th day of a the 5th month in an earth Bird year. the purpose of this written [agreement] between lama tenpa gyaltsen of Upper tshognam and father hrithar tshering of tshug is as follows. Previously, in the Water tiger year (1902), lama Ösal Dorje and hrithar tshering settled the price of the Dasa field, which has a seed capacity of 5 zo ba, as 50 rupees and 3 ’bo khal of grain, and thus the field was sold, until the world age should end, the crow should turn white, and the blue river should flow uphill; and hrithar tsering willingly set his seal to confirm that he would create no disturbance so much as the buzzing of a fly.But [i], hrithar, later made a request, asking whether it might be possible for me to receive 30 zo ba of the yield, and [the lama] has [indeed] been giving me 30 zo ba of the yield per year. after my death, the field [must be considered to] have been sold for 50 rupees and 3 [bod] khal of grain until the world ages end. in confirmation that he will say nothing contentious about this matter so much as the buzzing of a fly, hrithar tshering sets his seal. the witnesses to this are the anchorite Phurpa of chongkhor, hrithar Droma of tshug and Kunga samdrub of te, who set their marks.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 30

Earth Bird year, 5th month, 10th day, saturday (1910)

Script: 'khyug

Lines: 9

Settlement of a claim made by a blacksmith of tsherog against lama tenpa gyaltsen. the blacksmith claims that when borrowing a sum of money from the lama’s father, Ösal Dorje, his own father had left, as a security, jewelry worth ten times the value of the loan. lama tenpa gyaltsen denies ever having seen the jewelry.

1. sa bya zla pa 5 pa’i tshes 10 res gza’ 0 nyin | tshogs rgon bla ming bten bha rgyal tshen la | tshe rogs zo bha sku ka sridr (srid thar) nas
2. phyi su ur blang med pa’i yiegs (yigs ge) bris nas phul snying don tsha | tshogs rgon bla ming ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) nas dngul 10 dkar
3. kyi zhu nas | zhags 15 bha ka byi nas byu ru krug ma 17 dang phreng bha shel nags 1 a bha shing ka dbraṃ nas bha rtar
4. zhags bdugs zer zhin ngos bu zo bha sku ka sridr (srid thar) bhi khu 100 mdzin nas bla mi ming su bha sti rgyabs nas |
5. bla ming ten bha rgyal tshen nas | byu ru ngos nang med phrang bha kyang med zer nas spar sti phul dkor | ka {1s}
6. khrim dar zhin mdzad ngang | bha bla ha rdi mi nang grigs zhus nas | bar duṃ nas zo bha sku ka sridr (sri thar) la
7. dngul 18 cod nas nang bha la ha rgos nas | phyi su byu ru dang phrang bha byor zer nas ur blang rang
8. kad tsaṃ yang med bi yiegs (yi ge) bris nas phul bha tshe rogs zo bha ku gha sridr (sri thar) rtags | cha spang stob rgyal rtags |
9. gaga (ga ga) rdzaṃ ling rtags | rti ris nyer bsaṃ ba rtags |

1. tshogs dgon; bstan pa rgyal mtshan; bzo ba kun dga’ sri thar 2. ’ur langs 2.–3. bkar (?) gyis zhus nas; yi ge 3. bhākā byas nas; krug ma?; ’phreng ba; shel nag; siṅgha rām nas banḍhak 4. bzhag ’dug zer bzhin; ngos bu bzo ba kun dga’ sri thar; bhikhu (smt < nep.?); bla ma’i ming du bādi brgyab 5.’phreng ba yang; prati phul skor; kacahari 6. zhib bdar bzhin; bhalādmi nang ’grigs 7. 18 spyod nas gnang ba; ha go; phyis su; ’phreng ba ’byor; nas ’ur langs sbrang 8. skad tsam; yi ge bris; cha dpang


Saturday, the 10th day of the 5th month in an earth Bird year. to the lama named tenpa gyaltsen of tshognam monastery. the subject of the document that was written in order that there should be no subsequent disturbance by the blacksmith of tsherog, Kuka (= Kunga?) hrithar. the blacksmith Kuka hrithar of tsherog wheedlingly (dkar kyi < bkar gyis?) asked lama Ösal Dorje of tshognam gönpa to lend him ten rupees. he gave the date of repayment (bha ka < nep. bhākā) as fifteen days thence. his father, singha ram, left seventeen coral beads and a rosary of black crystal as security. But i, his son the blacksmith Kuka hrithar, brought a case (bha sti < nep. bādi) against the lama [on the grounds that he had] taken the equivalent of 100 [rupees]. lama tenpa gyaltsen made a formal response (spar sti < nep. prati ) to the effect that neither the corals nor the rosary were in his house. During the legal process, a request was made that the matter be sorted out by intermediaries (bhalādmi) according to internal laws. after a reconciliation had been achieved, [the lama] understood that a figure of 18 rupees had been decided on, and that he should give this to Kuka hirthar. in the future, [the latter] should create no disturbance so much as the buzzing of a fly by claiming that he should receive the corals and the rosary. this document has been written to that effect. Kuka hirthar sets his mark. the witnesses are tobgyal, the nobleman Dzamling, and sampa, the steward of tiri.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 31

Date: not given, probably 1912 (see Ut/32)

Lines: 24


A legal petition (ba ti i sar < nep. bādi ijhār) submitted to the government court by lama tenpa gyaltsen against lama tshewang angyal and his mother Butri of lower tshognam, in a dispute over the inheritance of a household and property.

1. glo smad bha ra gha’u gis a smal mgo dpon gsum gis bka’ rtsar ’du | [kh]o [tsho]gs gnaṃ bla ma bstan pa’i brgyal^n (brgyal mtshan) nas | kho bo tshogs gnam ’og gi blaṃ (bla ma) tshe dbang ang
2. rgyal dang kho’i a ma ’bu grigs ma bu gnyis min bsu bha sti i sar ’bri don =u [±2s] [don] rtsa | sngon blaṃ (bla ma) rig rten [rang] grol phur ba ang mo sogs bcas ’bu dang ’bu mo
3. rnam kyis pha ma chung ngu nas sku tshe pha rol gshegs bas dusu (dus su) kha chems la | ’bu mang (< dang?) ’bu mo rnaṃs cham na yom ’dad brgyu dang ma cham ba ’byung tshes | pha yis chos
4. bcas gang yod ’bu la | a mas brgyan dgos gang yod ’bu mo la | bde ldag brgyu nor bca’ lag zhing khang sa bzhi bcas gang yod suṃ cha suṃ gnyis dgos nas gter
5. =i= =ung =i= =e= =i= de dang [1s] na g= thabs srid thabs bcas mee (me me) nga dbang rdoe (rdo rje) [±1s] ’dug bzhin | bde brjes mee (me me) nga dbang rdoe (rdo rje) sku zhing gshegs skabs sngon kyi i bi yees (ye shes)
6. dbang mo’i kha chem yige (yig ge) bde blaṃ (bla ma) rig brten spun rnaṃ la hrad nas pha ma’i kha chem ltar bshad bzhin | ma tshad nga rang gis khang ba bde bzhin brtse mo nas rtsa ba thugs
7. ngos gi zhabs rtogs byed mi bu dang bu mo’i tshabs bu mo phur ba ang mo’i ang ma [gtogs?] | khyed spun gzhan rnaṃ la ang rtsen med do gsung nas snang ’dug bzhin | bde brjes
8. bla ma rig brten bzhing gshegs skabs kyang | a sku nga dbang rdoe’i (rdo rje’i) khang ba bu mo phur ba ang mo’i dbang brtsen yin zhing | gzhan a ma’i kha chem ltar | da thugs rang res
9. spun rnaṃs skyid ’dug gcig pa byas pa yin | da phyin khyed rnaṃs kyang a ma’i kha chem yi ge ltar cham par byed gsung ba’i zhal chem ’phya spang bcas Zzhag ’dug na
10. ngos gi i bi phur ba ang mo skye sman bud med song bar snyab bcod gis | kho bo [a?] kyis tshe dbang ’bum spa dang a ma bu grigs rnams nas pha ma’i kha chem kyi rgyu nor
11. bca’ lag sa zhing khang ba rnaṃs ma gter ba’i mkhar | kho bo tshe dbang ang rgyal ’thung ’dad byas pha hrib hang song gis | ngos kyis i bi phur ba dbang mo la me me nga

12. dbang rdoe (rdo rje) nas snang ba’i khang ba ’bu che chung gnyis la sngon rang du i bi ma shi dgongs dgos nas snang ’dug pa da cha bu che ba’i sna ma me smad dang ngos bu chung bas
13. ’bu la mi thob zer bzhin kho bo’i sbal bshad byas pa ma bzod pas bka’ khrim dar bshan i sar nang ’khod yod pa ltar la | ngos dang kho gnyis a zhang chung
14. pa dang | a ṇe tsha bo gcig pa yin zhing | mee (me me) bla ma rigs brten gis bu dang tsha bo ngos gnyis ka ma yin pas | khong grong skabs Zzhal chem kyang pha ma’i kha chem
15. ltar cham par byed gsung ’dug bzhin | da cha nged gnyis ga no dang nu mo tsha bo g[c]ig pa chos pas shul ’dzin ma rtogs | rgyal bo’i grong ’dzin min pas bu dang bu
16. mo phugs sdor skyes pa’i e khyed med | phur ba ang mo la pha mes kha chem ltar ma ’krad par kho bo nu bo’i ’bu tsha ’us da thub ’dzin gzung byas nas zhags pa ma shes
17. bskor kho bo gugs sbyang snang nas | ngos gi i bi bu shul ’dzin ngos yin pa i bi yees (ye shes) dbang mo’i kha chem yige (yig ge) dang | bla ma rigs brten kyis Zzhal chem ltar | kho bo’i mee (me me)
18. blaṃ (bla ma) rang grol dang khoo (kho bo) a kyi tshe dbang ’buṃ pas gter ’dug pa’i mchod tshig yige (yig ge) la bzhibs dpyad snang bzhin | blaṃ (bla ma) rigs brten rang grol phur ba ang mo bcas spun
19. rnam kyis pha ma gcig pa’i bu krugs yin min bshaṃ sal phya spang bka’ bris thogs nas | ngos gnyis chos bas bu blaṃ (bla ma) rig brten spun rnams kyis tsha bo gcig bas
20. gshaṃ sal rgyu nor sa zhing khang ba gang yod ngos kyis i bi phur ba ang mos thob khung suṃ chas bha kra bzhi bhi gu ston nas snang thabs yod pa mkhyeeen (mkhyen mkhyen mkhyen) | —
21. bstabs shil
22. khang pa gnyis — bzhing bcu gsuṃ [2s] | suṃ cha gcig gis bha gra bzhi yin ——
23. yees (yes shes) dbang mo’i ’bu dang ’bu mo gcig pa yin min | gshod yul kha zhi’i rgan rgon rnaṃs la bka’ bris snang thabs zhu | ——
24. dgong don tshang ma bden pa ma rtogs rdzun pa med rdzun du song tshe yul srol gis nyes pa sgrub zhu bzhus blaṃ brtag phul |

1. bāhragāũ; amāl; kacahari 2. ming du badi ijhār; bu dang bu mo 3. rnams kyi; bu dang (?) bu mo rnams ’cham na yom (smt < mnyam) sdod rgyu; ma ’cham pa ’byung tshe 4. bu la; bu mo; de dag rgyu nor; sa gzhi; gnyis bgos 5. de rjes mes mes; ibi ye shes 6. kha chems yi ge de; spun rnams la sprad; kha chems; de bzhin rtse mo nas rtsa ba thug 7. zhabs tog; bu mo’i tshab; rnams la dbang btsan; gnang ’dug; de rjes 8. zhing gshegs; a khu ngag dbang; dbang btsan yin; kha chems ltar; da thug rang 9. skyid sdug; ma’i kha chems; ’cham pa byed; zhal chems; cha dpang bcas bzhag 10. ngos kyi ibi 11. ster ba’i khar; ’thung sdod; pharep hang song; ibi phur; mo la mes mes ngag 12. nas gnang; bu che; ibi ma shi gong dngos gnas gnang; mna’ ma mämä 13. bu la; ma gzod pas bka’ ’khrims brdar shan ijhār gnang 14. mes mes; zhal chems; kha chems 15. ’cham par; chos pa’i shul 16. phu mdor; kha chems; sprad par; bu tsha’us; bzung byas nas bzhag pa ma shes? 17. skor; ’gugs ’chang gnang; kha chems; zhal chems; mes mes 18. kho bo aki; bster ’dug; chod tshig; zhib dpyad nang bzhin 19. bu phrug; sham gsal cha dpang; bka’ ’dri thog 20. sham gsal; thob khungs gsuṃ cha’i baṇḍā bzhi bhiku bton nas gnang 21. tapsil 22. baṇḍā bzhi 23. bu dang bu mo; shod yul kha bzhi’i; bka’ ’bri 24. gong don; ma rtogs rdzun; rtags phul


To the judge (a smal < nep. amāl, lit. court), the chief (? mgo) and lord (dpon) (or, the three judicial chiefs?): tenpa gyaltsen of tshognam presents this petition (ba ti i sar < nep. bādi ijhār) against those named lama tshewang angyal of lower tshognam and his mother, Butri. the subject is as follows. in the past, the father and mother of lamas rigden and [rang]drol and Phurba angmo died when their sons and their daughter were young. according to their will, if the sons and (mang = dang?) the daughter got on, they should live together. But if it should happen that they did not get on, all the father’s books should go to the sons, and all the mother’s jewelry and clothing should go to the daughter. [other] items of wealth and property, as well as the estate with its fields and buildings, should be divided into two parts comprising one-third and two-thirds... (line 5 beginning unreadable): as grandfather ngawang Dorje [says?]. after that, when grandfather ngawang Dorje had passed away, the earlier grandmother yeshe angmo gave her written will to lama rigden and his brother and sister. according to their parents’ will, “...and furthermore, in this way, our house from its topmost point to its foundations shall be in the exclusive possession (ang < dbang) of our daughter Phurba ang[mo], who gave us the filial service that ought to have been provided by [all three] of our children, and not in the possession of you other [two] siblings”. this is what was stated.
    And later, at the time of lama rigden’s death, his uncle ngawang Dorje house was in the power of the daughter Phurba angmo; and moreover, as it says in the mother’s will, “until now, we three siblings have been living as a single household (skyid sdug); from now on, in accordance with your mother’s will, you should get on together”. if there is a witnessed will that says this, on top of the fact that [tshewang angyal’s] father tshewang Bumpa and his mother Butri treated our grandmother Phurpa angmo contemptuously because she was a woman, and did not give her the valuables, property, fields and buildings according to the will, he, tshewang angyal, sitting and drinking (? ’thung ’dad), states in an outrageous exaggeration that the house that was given to our grandmother Phurba angmo by grandfather ngawang Dorje, whereas it had already (? sngon rang du) been divided up and given to the older and younger brothers before her death; and now, saying that it should not be inherited by the female relatives of the older son’s wife or by me, the son of the younger brother, without enduring his bullying (sbal < nep. bal), as it is stated in the report (? i sar < ijhār) of the legal inquiry, “since the two of us are the same: [respectively] the grandson of [my] grandmother’s younger brother [in his case] and of [his] great-aunt [in my case], and not the sons or grandsons of lama rigden, when he (lama rigden?) died, his will, like the will of his par- ents, said “you two should agree”, and in accordance with that, not only are the two [lineages], the grandsons of the younger brother and sister, heirs of lamas (chos pa), not households that are royal subjects, but the brother and the sister [in the grandparents’ generation] were not respectively born inside the house and on its threshold; there is no difference between them. and so, in connection with the little-known fact that, in contradiction to the will of our ancestors the son and the grandson of the younger brother (= rangdrol?) did not give this property to Phurba angmo, but have occupied it themselves, they should be arrested. in accordance with the will of grandmother yeshe angmo and the will of lama rigden, in keeping with a close examination of the agreement given by his grandfather meme lama rangdrol and his father tshewang Bumpa, lamas rigden and rangrol and [their sister] Phurba angmo, on the strength of inquiries among witnesses, whose names are set out clearly below, about whether or not these three siblings are the children of the same parents, we are all the same grandchildren of lama rigden and his siblings, who were a priestly family, and all the property, the land and the houses that are clearly itemised below, the exact amount of one-third of the source of our grandmother Phurba angmo’s inheritance, should be taken away from [tshewang angyal] and given to us.

Two houses and 13 fields—this is exactly one-third [of the inheritance]
We request that elderly people of the four shöyul be asked whether or not [rigden, rangdrol and Phurba ango] really were the sons and daughter of yeshe angmo. everything above is only the truth, with no falsehood, and if there is any falsehood i request that i be punished in accordance with the custom of the community.

Lines 13–14, a zhang chung pa dang | a ṇe tsha bo gcig pa, “...the same: [respectively] the grandson of [my] grandmother’s younger brother [in his case] and of [his] great-aunt [in my case]”: in the present context the terms a zhang (maternal uncle) and a ne (paternal aunt) are clearly intended to denote corresponding figures in the ascending generation, viz., (paternal) grandmother’s brother and (paternal) grandfather’s sister.
line 20, bha kra bzhi < baṇḍā bzhi: lit. “a four-way division”. in everyday usage in smt, this term simply signifies any number of equal portions.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 32

Date: Water rat year, 10th month, 5th day (1912)

Lines: 24

Script: ’khyug

Apparently a rough draft of Ut/31.

1. glo smad bha ra gha’u gis a smal bka’ tsar du | ngos tshogs snams blaṃ (bla ma) bstan ba’i brgyal [tshan nas] kh[o] btshogs rna[ṃ] ’dod mi bla ming oyan (o rgyan) rang grol min su bha sti i sar bris nas phul snying don
2. rtsa | tshogs rnaṃs su sngon skal ba’i mgon khang snying pa yod kyang chos pa med par bstan pas thogs nas | ngos gnyis gis mee (me me) tshe dbang ang ’rgyal dang tshe nga dbang rdoe (rdo rje])’i chos ston la brten nas
3. sbyin bdag gis dad mos cher ’byung pas tshogs rnaṃs gon khang du chag nas bzhugs dugs la rje mi tshe dbang ang rgyal gis bag mar tshugs nas i bi yees (ye shes) dbang mo len cing gon par
4. zhugs pas | ’bu rigs ldan rang grol phur ba ang mo sogs spun rnaṃs byung nas | pha ma chung dus sku tshe ’das kyang spun rnaṃs pha ma’i bka’ grub chos mdzad nas sgo thon tshaṃs no rang
5. grol gi kyu kar nas bag ma len bu mo la glo nas mee (me me) mag pa len cing | kho rnaṃs {lo 1s shes} bskyid ’dug gcig ’brel gis gon pa sngar las dar dyas mdzad nas
6. chos ston mkhas ba la cha zhag nas {chos pa’i} sa zhing rgyu bcas spyi thog bzhag nas blaṃ (bla ma) rigs ldan ma gon du bzhugs | rang grol za tshang gnyis zur khang du dad | ngos gis i bi mee (me me) za tshang {gnyis mee (me me) nga dbang rdoe’i (rdo rje’i) khang mi 1
7. 2s chos bran la ’byor khyun rten ’byor pa’i khang par dad} bcas kyang zur zhugs byas dug kyang skyid dugs gcig bres nas | spyir gor rgyal rinoe’i (rin po che’i) bzhabs rten | gos don glo smad bha ra ghau gis dpon bang
8. lhan rgyas kyi tshe ring sdig sgrib sbyang phyir phyags mchod ’bul zhing | dad mos yod pa rnams kyi sku rim sman spyad mo rtsis rim ’gro gang nus zhus cing dad pas rjes su rang grol la
9. ’bu gnyis {1s} dang {28s} ngos gis i bi me me la bu gnyis byung nas kho bo’i a kyi ma dgon du dad ston zhan pa rnams zur du zhi dad nas
10. {15s} dag tshug yul yin par brten dger {1s} phral yang rang rang byang zhing dad ngang la {5s}
11. spyi mi ngan kha grigs byed {1s} nas {30s} ngos {3s} phyir ston phyir ston
12. kho bo nang dad byus byas ba ma zod par glo smad khrim zhabsu (zhabs su) bka’ khrim {9s} sngon khyun yon ston la cha zhag nas chos shul tshe

13. bzang ngan sten {1s} nas ’byor khyun sten | chos shul ’dzin mi pha tshabsu (tshabs su) ’bu ngos gnyis yin pas yon sngon khyun ltar gtso cher gor rgyal rinoe (rin po che) zhabs rten nang don glo
14. smad bha ra gha’u gis thos sman grags ’zhan gang po’i zhabs rten sku rims sman dpyad rim ’gro gang dgos sngon brgyud las ma zhan par zhabs byi gnyis phyogs nas bzhus yod
15. bzhag la da cha yang bka’ khrim nas kho bo gug byang snang nas ngos gnyis yon ston ’di sgyug mthar ’zhes nas khong la nga yon ston gzhan pa med cing sngon khyun bka’ nang bzhin yon ston la cha
16. bzhag la | *da cha yang bka’ khrim nas kho bo gugs byang snang nas ngos gnyis ston gi sgyugs mthar bzhes nas khong la na sdon gzhan pa med cing sngon khyun bka’ nang bzhin yton (yon tan) la ma
17. bzhag* mdzad nas kho bo’i g.yog khrul byas pa’i gshaṃs sal khang zhing sa gzhi rnaṃs ngos la bka’ khrim nas ston ste ’byor snang mkhyen | ’di thogs gi {1s} nas
18. sngon ltar gor ’rgyal rinoe’i (rin po che’i) gtso mdzad mnga ’og gang po’i zhabs rten dang 1s thob sa dag yul srol gis phral rig phul {1s} ’zhing galte (gal te) ma phul bar krang khrim
19. med kyis chos ’dzin bde khar gyur tshe bka’ khrim nas gang bab phul nus bzhus pa dang | bde thogs sa cha gsog bskul byas dbang chos yton (yon tan) la rten nas ma rtogs bka’
20. dam krugs dang nyo tshong byas pa’i yig cha gnyis phyogs la bstan rgyu med pas dgongs sal phyags rab rgyud pa ’byung khung yin min gshaṃ sal phya spang bka’ bris zhin bha yod
21. pa mkhyen | bsham sal | mgon pa 1 dbul tsa’i khang pa 1 dbul sa 1 zhing ra khog che mo 1 ra khog ’og ma 1 sar ldang brag
22. tse 1 btab ska ma 1 zhar shing sdong po 1 sa mtsham zur sum 1 chod zhing 1 mdun zhing 1 sdom zhing 12? da ra 1
23. dum ra 2 bcas dang | phya spang steng yed gya ga sa mar rtse le bster bcas kyi rgan rgon lo drug bcu yan chad bka’ ’dri zhu 1
24. dgong gtaṃ ma bden rdzun du song tshe en srol gang gnang men mi bzhu pa tshogs rnaṃs blaṃ (bla ma) bstan pa’i rgyal^n (rgyal mtshan) ngos mas chu byi zla 10 tshe 5 la phul |

paraphrase and Commentary
A petition (nep. bādi) submitted by lama tenpai gyaltsen of tshognam in litigation against ogyen rangdrol, also of tshognam.
    The gist of the document is the same as that of Ut/31. the present text differs in a number of respects: it is more untidy—less neatly written and with more deletions than the other— and it is more dramatic in its presentation of the illustrious forebears of the petitioner. this suggests that it may have been a rough draft, and that the other was the final version, com- posed after a cooler appraisal of the situation. another difference is that the present petition is directed against one ogyen rangdrol, whereas the other was against tshewang angyal. it is on the basis of the similarity between the two documents that we have assumed ogyen rangdrol and tshewang angyal to be brothers, as indicated in the genealogical diagram given in the introduction (see also the case brought by namkha gyaltsen, Ut/33).
    This more prolix version is useful insofar as it contains some useful information pertaining to the relationships between the protagonists and their ancestors, and the history of the clan in tshognam. a number of interesting details are also contained in the many deleted passages.

    A summary of the preamble to the complaint may be provided here. Because the old temple and its residence (mgon [dgon] khang) had for a long time had no priestly (chos pa) occupant, says the petitioner, his ancestor tshewang angyal (“and ngawang Dorje” deleted), was invited to move in on the grounds of his excellent priestly qualities (chos yon tan rten nas). the deletion probably signifies that ngawang Dorje was the lama’s younger brother, who, as is normal, would not have received the same education. the lama took as his wife (bag mar) one yeshe angmo from tshug, and they had three children: rigden, rangdrol and Phurba angmo. these, too, were religious people like their parents. rangdrol took a wife from Kyukar (a noble house) in Purang. the daughter, Phuba angmo, took a man from lo as a husband who resided in her family house (mag pa). the three siblings shared their land and property in common. lama rigden lived in the house (or part of the house?) called magön, the “mother monastery”. rangdrol and his wife lived in Zurkhang, the “house on the edge”, which is said later to have been carried away by the river. Phurba angmo and her husband lived apart (zur) from the others. at this point the word “apart” has been substituted for the deleted phrase “ the house of grandfather ngawang Dorje”. in spite of their separate residence, the three siblings held their property in common. they performed offerings and ceremonies of long life for the [subjects of the?] gorkha king in general and for the lords and subjects of Baragaon in particular. they paid dger khral (?for sger khral—perhaps “private tax”, i.e. signifying that they were autonomous citizens rather than lessors from outside?) to tshug. now, however, there has been a conspiracy among a number of bad people, and the petitioner and his family have been evicted. Because the petitioner cannot put up with the fact that the new occupants have perpetrated this deception, he is submitting this legal petition to the court of lower lo in accordance with tradition, in the hope that he will receive his rightful inheri- tance. since he and his brother are the rightful heirs of his father, and because they have always, in accordance with tradition, performed rituals on behalf of the gorkha king, and have provided whatever ritual and medical services for the King of nepal and all the inhabitants, great and small alike, that were required, these two humble servants request that justice be done, and that the house and fields that have been unlawfully taken from them be restored. he has continued, as in the past, to perform ritual services for the precious gorkha king and for all his subjects, and in accordance with the custom of the land has paid his various taxes, and if it transpires that he has not paid his taxes, he welcomes whatever appropriate punishment might be imposed on him. the petitioner then provides a list of areas of land and items of property that are rightfully his not only on the strength of his religious qualities, but on the basis of the history of the estate, presented above, the authenticity of which is confirmed by witnesses, and not on broken promises or on spurious documents.
    One monastery; the shed of a threshing yard; a threshing yard; a total of (possibly) twelve fields (of which eight are named); one cattle pen; two gardens. invoking witnesses who are all elders of over 60 years of age from taye, gyaga, samar, tsele and te, he requests that if the above is not the full truth, and is mendacious in any respect, he will accept without demur any punishment that is meted out to him. issued by the lama of tshognam, tenpai gyaltsen, on the 5th day of the 10th month in a Water rat year.

Lines 16–17, *da bzhag*: the passage of text presented between the asterisks is clearly the result of eyeskip while copying from an even earlier version of the petition.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 33

Date: none given, ca. 1912

lines: 34

script: ’khyug



A petititon submitted to the government court of lower lo by namkha gyaltsen of tshognam and his elder sister. they accuse four other residents of tshognam with evicting them from their house, occupying it and stealing their property.

1. glo smad a smal bka’ brtsar ’du | ngos tshogs rnaṃs ’dod mi naṃkha’i (nam mkha’i) brgyal^n (brgyal mtshan) pas bka’ khrim phul ba’i don
2. mtshan | bshaṃ sal ming ’khod rnaṃs nas ’khrim med sbal mshed ngos spu gnyis la byas pa ma bzod pas
3. ngos gis sa zhing ’dad khang rgyu nor phrogs bcags bcom byas pa’i bskor la dgongs khrim nas khoo (kho bo) rnaṃs gugs sbyang snang
4. nas en srol gis nyes ba drags po bzhes nas ngos gis rgyu nor bi gu mdangs zhing thogs khang pa rnaṃs ston nas
5. ’byor snang yod pa mkhyeeen (mkhyen mkhyen mkhyen) | ngos gis rgyu nar phrogs bcom byas mi khoo (kho bo) tshogs rnaṃs ’dod mi tshe dbang rgyal—1
6. (kho bo’i) (bu med) lha gcig—1 khoo (kho bo’i) a ma bu brigs—1 khoo’i (kho bo’i) rtsar ’dad mi joo (jo mo) bconga (bco lnga)—1 bcas mi bzhi mdangs
7. tshugs yul mdangs khong gnyis nang mthun byas nas | ngos spun gnyis kyis sngon {1s} pha mes chags nas da lta’i ’bar
8. mi tshes gnyis suṃ tshugs yul bas nang phral sbyang nas ’dad mu la | tshugs pas phyi {1} phral dgos zer nas ngos la bshad
9. tshul la {1s} ngos nas sngon nas da lta bar nang phral ma togs phyi phral sbyang ma snus rkyen bka’ khrim phul
10. pa la ma bde thas rkyen byas nas | ngos spun gnyis kyis nyes skyon gang yang med bha la | ngos kyis i lci me
11. med phyir ston sgo la sgo lcags gyab yod pa lcags rgyu nor phrogs bcom khoo’i (kho bo’i) sgo lcags gyab song pa la | khoo (kho bo) ma bzod rkyen
12. yod na bka’ khrim gzhu dgos yin tshod la | gcig phyogs rgyalo (rgyal po) gnyis phyogs bloon (blon po) byas nas ngos spun gnyis pha
13. mes shul ’dzin dbang med pa ngos phyi la ston bzhin khoo (kho bo) nang du ’jugs byus gang rigs byas dugs pa la | ngos gnyis chos

14. pas tshul gcig pa yin bzhin | bsted tshugs gnyis gtsos yul sde gang por sman bcos rim ’gro sogs
15. rang la ’dad mos yod pa gang por gang shes byas yod pa la | da cha khoo’i (kho bo’i) byus ngan byas rkyen ngos skyon med la tshugs yul
16. pas nang phral nas phyir ston | khoo (kho bo) nang ’dad rtsis byas mi phyogs cing | ngos gnyis phyi nang gang byas kyang sngon nas da
17. da bar nang phral la dus yod pa la | da cha khoo (kho bo) dbang gi ngos phyi phral dang khoo (kho bo) nang la cugs dugs na | nged
18. gnyis las don gang byas kyang khong las nga zhen pa mdi dugs na | dgongs bka’ khrim nas bzhibs dpyad snang
19. nas ngos gnyis sngon nas da bar nang phral gcig pa yod pas da cha yang phyi nang gang byas kyang bka’
20. khrim nas phral rigs gcig pa la bcugs nas snang thabs mkhyeeen (mkhen mkhyen mkhyen)
21. sham sal
22. pha mes khang ba sgo lcags bcags nas (kho bo’i) gyab yod pas nang | sgaṃ gcig rin ṭaṃ lnga ris pa gcig nang ’bru bod
23. khal suṃ rtsaṃ mdangs bcas yod pa—1 yang sgaṃ ṭaṃ bzhi ris pa—1 dza ma che chung bzhi rin ṭaṃ—6
24. rags bzang khro bzang gcig rin ṭaṃ—15 rags chung gcig rin ṭaṃ—4 rags rta sa le gcig rin ṭaṃ—5
25. bha krugs pa gnyis rin ṭaṃ—1 dra phor gcig rin ṭaṃ phyed—3 bu ru gcig rin ṭaṃ phyed— 2
26. bzang gi ’dzags rkyen gcig rin ṭam—9 spo shel gnyis rin ṭaṃ—3 dngul slebs gcig dang dril ma
27. gcig rin ṭaṃ—18 spe stung grags 1s 13 gzi smig bzhi pa gcig mdang smig sum pa gcig rin ṭam—{1s} 50 gzi
28. phra gcig rin ṭaṃ—5 gzi lugs smig gnyis rin ṭaṃ—[1s] stab kya gcig rin ṭaṃ—2 sla
29. nga gcig rin ṭaṃ—2 bzang slang gcig rin—3 kyogs gcig rin—1 g.yu cheung (che chung) lnga
30. rin ṭaṃ—40 lcags gyed—1 rin ṭaṃ—3 bcas ngos kyi khang pas nang yod pa dang | i lci khang bas nang | rogs ma {gnyi}
31. gnyis rin ṭaṃ 4 phrad rogs gcig rin ṭaṃ gcig | dza ma cheung (che chung) bzhi rin ṭaṃ— 6 snyi ras gcig
32. rin ṭaṃ—5 pha rtse lnga rin ṭaṃ—5 thags pa cha brgyad rin ṭam—8 zo ra suṃ rin ṭaṃ

33. phyed—3 bzang chung snying pa gcig rin ṭaṃ—3 stab kya gcig rin ṭaṃ—2 sla nga

34. gcig rin ṭaṃ—2 bzang lang gcig rin ṭaṃ—2 lcags kyed—1 rin ṭam—2

1. smad amāl kacahari du; bka’ khrims 2. sham gsal; khrims med sbal bshad; spun gnyis 3. sdod khang; phrogs bcag; dong khrims; ’gugs ’chang gnang 4. ain srol; drag po; dang zhing thog; bton nas; ’byor gnang; rgyu nor 6.sdod mi; bzhi dang 7. yul dang; pha mes ’chags; lta’i bar 8. tshe gnyis gsum; nang khral; sdod mu la; phyi khral 9. ma gtogs phyi khral; ma nus; bka’ khrims 10. ma bde ’thad rkyen; med pa la 10.–11. mes mes phyir ’don; brgyab yod; brgyab song 12. bka’ khrims zhu 13. ’don bzhin; ’jug byus 15. dad mos 16. nang khral nas phyir bton; nang bsdad; mi chog 17. {da} bar nang khral; bsdus yod; phi khral; bcug ’dug na; gong bka’ khrims nas zhib dpyad gnang 19. nang khral 20. khrims nas khral; bcug nas gnang 21. sham gsal 22. bcag nas; brgyab yod; lnga rä pa; ’bru ’bo 23. gsum tsam dang bcas; pa; rdza ma 24. rag zangs 25. batrug (smt < bal dkrug; see note to Ut/17) 26. zangs kyi; spos shel 27. gzi mig; dang mig gsum 28. lug mig gnyis 28. tabkye gcig 29. zangs slang; skyogs gcig; lcags sgyed; khang pas gnang; rogma 30. trerog; rdza ma; snyi ’brad 31. phartse; thag pa 32. zangs chung; tabkye 33. zangs slang; lcags sgyed


To the government court of lower lo. i, namkha gyaltsen, resident of tshognam, present this legal petition. those whose names are clearly set out below have unlawfully used force against us two siblings. not wishing to put up with this, i request that they be arrested in con- nection with the house and property of ours that they have stolen, and that, in accordance with national law and local tradition, they be punished severely and that the value of our property as well as our fields and our house be taken from them and restored to us.
    The people who have stolen and damaged our property are these four residents of tshognam: tshewang (ang)yal, his daughter lhacig, his mother Butri and the nun conga, who lives with them. they have made a conspiracy with the people of tshug. for the two or three generations since our ancestors first settled here, down to the present day, we have lived here continuously, as my sister and i now do, paying internal tax. the tshugpas are claiming that we should pay external tax, but in actual fact from the past down to the present we have had (lit. have been able) to pay only internal tax, not external tax, and it is for this reason that we are submitting this petition.
    The reasons for our discontent are as follows. Without my sister or me having committed any wrong, they turned us out of the house, broke the lock that was on the door, stole our property and installed another lock. it is because i was unable to put up with this that i am submitting this legal petition. acting as if they were the kings on one side and we were [mere] min- isters on the other, they laid various plans for evicting us so that we would have no control over our inheritance, and for occupying the house themselves. But both we and they are the same kind of priestly families, providing medical and ritual services to the best of our ability for everyone who has faith in us in all the communities, especially te and tshug. But now, as a result of their machinations, and through no fault of our own, the people of tshug have taken us out of the internal tax category and placed us in the external tax class. he is planning to remain in the internal category, but this should not be allowed. Whether our two households are in the internal or the external class—we have always been in the internal tax category— but now because of him, we have been placed in the external tax group, while he is in the internal category. if i am indeed not his inferior in any respect, on the basis of the court’s investigation, since the two of us have always both been in the internal tax category, so now, too, whether it is a matter of being in the “external” or the “internal” class, may the law decide that we are in the same bracket.

The list [of property] is as follows:

(Tabular form can not be shown here..)

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 34

Date: Wood tiger year, 1st month, 15th day, tuesday (1914)

Lines: 4; one line on verso

Script: ’khyug

Contract for the sale of a field in te to lama Ösal Dorje for 50 rupees.

1. shing stags zla 1 po’i tshe 15 re gza’ 3 nyin | tshog gnaṃ blaṃ (bla ma) ’od gsal rdoe (rdo rje) mdang gsted spen pa gnyis tshogs gnaṃ zhing shags thang
2. nyo tshong byas pa’i rin dngul 50 byas nas zhing ’di bzhin skal pa naṃ stong kho rog dkar po naṃ gyur rtsang chu sngon mo ’gyen logs naṃ
3. yongs ’bar la skad mi snyan grang skad rtsaṃ mi zhu ba bsted spen pa dang ’bu mo tshe ring dpal mo gnyis rang thad rtags the po X bde
4. yi phya spang bster gnyer pa gye long | bster ’bod la | rab ’byung dpal rtsang gsuṃ zhugs | yig ’khod nga rang bces yod |

1. shing stag; tshes 15; (rdo rje) dang; shag thang 2. nam ’gyur; gyen log nam 3. yong bar la; sbrang skad tsam 4. yi cha dpang; gsum bzhugs; bcas yod

Tuesday, the 15th day of the 1st month in a Wood tiger year. lama Ösal Dorje of tshognam and Penpa of te are engaging in a financial transaction. Penpa is selling lama Ösal Dorje one of his fields in the river bed area for the price of 50 rupees. Until the world ages end, till the crow turns white and till the river flows uphill no unpleasant words so much as the buzzing of a fly shall be said about this matter. to this agreement Penpa and his daughter tshering Palmo set their thumbprints. the witness to this is gelong, the steward of te.

Shagtang is the name of an old area of fields in tshognam, situated near the dry river bed (shag thang). there were still some fields here during nD’s childhood, but they have long been washed away. the office of steward (gnyer pa) is one of several rotating positions in te. the word dge slong, usually signifying an ordained monk, is also a proper name in te.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 36

Date: Wood-hare year, 12th month, first day, tuesday (January 1916)

Lines: 12

Script: ’khyug

Remarks: square seal on line 11, possibly reading gter yul, “the community of te”.

Agreement by the community of te to offer the second of any three daughters born in a family to be a nun under the authority of the lama of tshognam.

1. {shing} shing yos zla 2 tshes 1 re gza’ smig dmar nyin | tshogs dgong blaṃ (bla ma) jo mo snaṃ la | bster yul
2. {rgan} gi rgan nga dbang tshi ris rgan ’du li chos skyabs | naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) dbang ’dus dang mi grags oyan (o rgyan)
3. {1}ka mi dbang ’dus | tshi ring dbang ’dus | nyis ma tshi ris rdoe (rdo rje) gra ’dul kyi skyabs tshi ring
4. bsaṃ grub bces | yul sde spyi’i [1s?] bka’ gros kyi thogs nas tshog dgong blaṃ (bla ma) bstan rgyal^n (rgyal mtshan)
5. la | mchod tshigs yi ge ’bris rnas khung nying | don rtsa bsted yul nang gi bu gsuṃ ’bar ma rnaṃs
6. lo bcu drug lon ma thag grigs zhugs byed rgyu | gal ste jiten (’jig rten) byas tshe | si ri rgyal zhabs la dngul 500 dang
7. yul dpon la dngul 100 ’bul thub zhus pa | yul sde ag bster rgan mi grags dgong sal
8. rnaṃs skyi rtags | shaṃ sal rgan nga dbang tshi ri rtags X rgan ’du li chos skyabs — rtags X
9. rgan naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) dbang ’dus rtags X {1s} oyan (o rgyan) rtags X ka mi dbang ’dus rtags X tshi ris dbang ’dus stags {1s}
10. nyi ma tshi ris rtags X rdoe (rdo rje) gra ’dul rtags X kyi skyabs tshi ring rtags X bsaṃ grubs rtags X bcas yul {2s}
11. mi spyi lags bkor kyi rtags (seal) 1 ’don di rnaṃs kyi phya spang bskag sku byams zhugs pa’i sa hi
12. yig bri bu rdoe (rdo rje) yin pa’i rtags X

1. mig dmar; jo mo rnams 2. mi drag 4. thog nas 5. chod tshig; bris nas khungs snying 6. sgrigs zhugs; gal te; śrī rgyal 7. hak ster rgan mi drag gong gsal 8. kyi rtags; sham gsal 11. lag skor gyi; cha dpang; bzhugs pa’i sāhi


Tuesday, the first day of the 12th month in a Wood hare year. to the lamas and nuns of Upper tshognam. the headmen of te, ngawang tshering, Duli chökyab and namkha Wangdu, and the “respectable (lit. powerful) men” ogyen, Kami Wangdu, tshering Wangdu, nyima tshering, Dorje Drandul, Kyikyab tshering and samdrub. on the basis of a discussion held among the members of the community, this letter, the subject of which is as follows, is addressed to lama tenpa gyaltsen of Upper tshognam. as soon as the second of three daughters (lit. sons) in the community of te reaches the age of 16 she should become a nun. if she should remain a laywoman, her family will be able to pay 500 rupees to the representative of the government and 100 rupees to the head of the community. the headmen and “respectable men” who have been authorised by the community place their thumbprints. they are clearly named as: headman ngawang tshering; headman Duli chökyab; namkha Wangdu; ogyen; Kami Wangdu; tshering Wangdu; nyima tshering; Dorje Drandul; Kyikyab tshering; samdrub. the document is passed from hand to hand among the members of the community, and sealed. the witness to this agreement is Kushab Jamyang (sku zhabs ’Jam dbyangs) of Kag.

It is not clear from the text itself whether the subject of the document is young monks or young nuns, since the expression that is used, bu gsum ’bar [bar]ma, the “middle child [lit. son] of three [children]”, applies equally to girls and boys. however, monks were recruited by the monastic communities of the muktinath valley, and since this letter is addressed to the lama and nuns of Upper tshognam, it is certain that it is nuns, rather than monks, that are meant. Until this time, the convent for nuns from te had been Kunzang chöling (Kun bzang chos gling), popularly known as gönpa gang (dgon pa sgang), which is situated on a ridge (sgang, hence the name) opposite the latter community (see Ut/23).

Line 2, mi grags (< mi drag), “powerful man/men”: the term corresponds to the nepali term bhaladmi (a term that is also used in the archives) and denotes individuals who are appointed by the community to serve in an advisory capacity for the duration of a particular dispute or crisis (see Karmacharya n.d.).

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 37

Date: Water snake year, 10th month, 12th day, a Wednesday (1893)
Script: ’khyug
Lines: 12
Remarks: the left margin bears a round seal set at either end of the name of the Dzar dpon po.

An agreement by the community of te concerning the irrigation rights and exemption from rent for amchi tshewang, who has recently been invited, along with his family, to occupy the priestly estate of Baza.

1. chu drul zla pa 10 pa’i tshes 12 re sa 4 nyin | ster rgan choskyab (chos skyab) pho^g (phon tshog) | rgan dpaldan (dpal ldan) | rgan ’rgyal zlos
2. sum rtsos yul ’dir tshes ldyad nas | zhal cham thun ’drub thog nas | am byi tshe dbang la
3. chos tshig yige (yi ge) snang sdon | sdon sngon bha sa rgon sdag med pa | sgon zhing kyi
4. zhing kyi dbang tshan rnang ’dug zhing | byes su chus skor ma chams zhing dzar dpon
5. zang sdor nas brig lam dzad zhing | zhing thog skor sngon kyang se khal 1 gcig
6. byang khun dar | ’dus de nasong (nas song?) | lo re zhin se khal rees (re res) yul la phul rgyu dang
7. zhing chus skor | chu ’rgyan sgyab nas | lan dzin nas da stang rtang nas | chu skal dang
8. po nyin cig rgon zhing cu rgyu dang | de nas yul zhing khang nas | yang kyer chus
9. skal dang por rnang rgyu chos pa dang | chu skal yul pa gang gos kyi | skal dang po snang
10. snang rgyu chod sdon | khral kyang aṃ byi pha bu 2 la khral las gong yang rnang khrod yul |
11. tsi ’bres byi rgyu chod pa’i sdon | am byi sku tshes nam rnas bhar | rgon zhing kyi 12. dbang tsan yul nas phul pa’i rtags | rgan sde rtsi ci lags skor | ge
Left margin
(seal) cha spang dzar dpon zang sdor (seal)

1. chu sbrul 2. gsum gtsos; tshes brgyad?; zhal ’cham mthun grub; am chi 3. chod tshig yi ge gnang don; don sngon ba tshwa dgon bdag; kyi dgon 4. dbang btsan gnang; rjes su chu’i; ma ’chams; sgrig lam mdzad 6. sbyang rgyun ltar; dus de nas bzung?; re bzhin; ’bul rgyu 7. zhing chu’i skor; rgyan brgyab; las ’dzin nas brda gtong btang 8. dgon zhing ’chu; yang skyar ’chu 9. gnang rgyu chod pa; gang dgos 10. gnang rgyu chod don; dgong yangs gnang sprod (?) 11. rtsis ’bres (?) byed rgyu chod pa’i don; am chi sku tshe nam gnas bar; dgon zhing 12. dbang btsan; sde {rtsi} spyi lag skor; dge; left margin cha dpang

Wednesday, the 12th day of the 10th month in a Water snake year. on the basis of an agreement reached in this community, led by the headmen of te chökyab Phuntshog, Palden and gyaldö, on the 8th day of this month, this written agreement is presented to amchi tshewang. Baza gompa had long been without an occupant (lit. owner), and (tenancy of) the temple and its fields were given to him. later on there was a disagreement over the irrigation circuit, but this was resolved by Zangdor, the nobleman of Dzar. as rent for his fields, the amchi should pay one se khal (30 zo ba) of barley (nas), as was the custom in the past (with the previous tenant of Baza); since then, every year, 1 se khal [of grain] should be given to the community. concerning the irrigation roster, after dice [to determine the order] have been cast, the con- stables should inform [the Baza lama]: the first share of water shall be for irrigating the gonpa’s fields for one full day. after all the villagers’ fields have been irrigated, Baza should again be given a share. however many circuits the village can manage, Baza temple should always be first on the list.
    As for taxes, the amchi and his son may abide in Baza free of charge (gong yang < dgong yangs). the community of te gives control (dbang tshan [btsan]) of the temple and its fields to the amchi and his son until the end of the amchi’s life.
    The nobleman of Dzar, Zangdor, sets his seal in the left margin as a witness to the agreement.

Amchi tshewang is said by nD to have been a natural child of a woman of chongkhor fathered by a member of the shari Pöngyuta clan from Dzar. the previous tenant of Baza temple was a member of the tsabgyepa clan, considered to have been a reincarnate lama, who left Baza when he married into taye.
    Amchi tshewang is the father’s father’s father of the most recent tenant of Baza temple, Karma tshering, and his late elder brother, the erstwhile tenant of Upper tshognam. Both are the elder brothers of nD. Baza temple has finally become vacant again. following a dispute between Karma tshering and the tepas, the latter withdrew Baza’s irrigation rights in 1994 and the temple’s fields have been barren ever since. in the summer of 1995 Karma tshering finally decided to leave Baza for good and settle in Jomsom with his family. several years later he returned to removed the wooden beams of the building, and the house is now an uninhabitable ruin.

line 7, lan dzin (< las ’dzin): the usual term for this category of community officer in most of southern lo is rol po; in the shöyul it is tshowa (tib. tsho ba). to the best of my knowl- edge the term las ’dzin is used only in northern lo.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 39

Date (on last line): [no year], 11th month, 5th day, saturday (1920s)

Lines: 11

Script: ’khyug

Letter from an unnamed sender to amchi namgyal of Baza concerning an outbreak of smallpox.

1. mkhyen ldan lha byes rnam rgyal sku yi drung du |
2. ngos bu med ches pa
3. nad ngan brum pa rgyab stes bu med chung pa bu mo bu tsod
4. bros rjes skags du dod yod | zla di tshes 15 la mar spogs ra
5. phyogs la bro gos pa dang lus kos dkyed stan gang po
6. snags dang bhags pa song stes byis rtab bral shing | da lam bhang

7. mi ’dis dun kyed rtan rgya rdigs snyis dzong rnang dang yar
8. bleb thogs phul chog pa dang | bhang mis dun dzin
9. yang phul chog/yod | nang mo ches pa nad ngan dzin rdes
10. zhags 13 song bu ru rnaṃ la shags rgyab gos bdug zer byung
11. zla pa 11 tshe 5 res za 7 la kag nas phul —

Emendations (selective)
1. lha rje 2. che ba 3. ’brum pa; bu tsho (?) 4. bsdad yod 5. ’gro dgos; lus gos kyete 6. rnag ’bags pa; byed thabs ’bral; da lam ’bangs 7. mdun kyete; rgya thig 8. sleb thog; ’bangs mi bdun ’dzin 9. nang mo che ba; ’dzin de 10. buru rnams la bshag rgyab dgos ’dug


Letter sent from Kag by someone who does not give his name to “the learned doctor (lha byes for lha rje) namgyal” (ND’s paternal grandfather). the writer’s elder daughter is ill with smallpox (perhaps in tshug?) and he is planning to send his younger daughter to Pokhara on the 15th day of the present month, i.e. in ten days’ time. she is now in Kag; her garments are polluted, presumably by contact with her sister, and she needs a change of clothing, and the writer requests the lama to send some to him. the elder daughter has been ill now for thirteen days, and is covered in pustules.

Lines 5, 7, dkyed stan, kyed rtan rgya rdigs (< kyete, kyete rgya thig): the first is tightly-woven woollen garment for women, worn outside the dress as a reverse apron; the second is a similar garment, distinguished by its design of repeated crosses.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 40

Date: none

Lines: 35

Script: ’khyug



A list of teachings received (thob yig) by lama tenpai gyaltsen.


1. na mo gu ru bhya | ’dir bdag sogs ’gro ba lha dang bcas pa’i srog shing kun gyi gtsugs brgyan srid gsuṃ phyogs thaṃsd (tham cad) las brgyal shing
2. bzang pos ’dad ldan slobs ma rnams la dge bskul bya phyir dpal sa skya’i chos sgra chen mo nas spring
2. chen po dpal sa skya ba sngags ’chang blaṃ (bla ma) thaṃsd (tham cad) mkhyen pa ngag dbang drag shugs ’phris (’phrin las) rien (rin chen) mthu stobs dbang phyugs bkra shis sgrag pa rgyal tshan dpal ±3s
3. stes pa gser khri gdong lngas ’stegs pa’i khri drung du | bdag sogs smin grol phyogs la =o= pa’i l=ng ldan ±9s
4. [±7s] stan bc=s ’zhabs pad spyi ba’i gdu= =d pa 1s lha pa bzang po bcan ngag dbang ’phrin dbang bsku ngos ±1s?
5. pa’i brgyal^n (brgyal mtshan) pas ’di nyid kyi ’zhabs drung du theg chen gsang sngags rdoe (rdo rje) theg pa’i laṃ ’bras ’bu man ngag rgyamtsho (? rgya mtsho) la sogs pa’i dbang khrid ma lus par [1–2s]
6. par thob pa’i byed tho kun gsal zhig bkod par bya la | spyir gsngags (gsang sngags) rdoe (rdo rje) theg pa’i dkyilor (dkyil ’khor) su ’jug par bya pa’i thog mar lam dus bka’ khri chen mo
7. theg pa chen po’i mchog tu gyur ba seṃs bskyed chen mo dang | dpal kyai rdoe (rdo rje) thaṃ[d] (thams chad) [1s] =e= rdoe’i (rdo rje’i) rdul tshon la bstan pa’i tshe dbang yong rdzogs dang | gru dbang brtse ba
8. rdoe sengge (rdo rje) la mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) ma sengge dong pa can gyi dngosu (dngos su) gnang ba khro mo mes btsegs pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | khroo (khro mo) sme ba btsegs pa jo bo rje dpaldn (dpal ldan) a ti shas mdzad pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) dang |
9. dpaldn (dpal ldan) shang pa bka’ rgyud nas | sgrag pa’i phyag rdor drag po gsuṃ dril rjeng (rjes gnang) | dpal phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) {b}gos sngon can ’kro bzang snying po las rgyud pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) gos sngon
10. can ’khoor (’khor lo) chen po pho kyang gyi rje gnang | phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) a tsarya’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | dpal phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) gtuṃ po khyung lnga’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | khro rgyal bya khyung nag po a tsa ra dmar po
11. las rgyud pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | dpal dus ’khor los gsung pa’i mkha’ lding khyung [kh]r[a]’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | chos rjes sa skya ba paṇ ṭi ta nas rgyud pa’i ’phag pa spyan ras gzigs phyag bzhi ba’i rje gnang | grub chen thang thong

12. rgyal po nas rgyud pa’i yige (yi ge) drug pa rgyung lung man ngag dang bcas pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | 2–3s gnas yan lags pa dpal smos lug gi ’phags pa spyan ras gzigs bcuig (bcu gcig) zhal rgyi
13. rjeng (rjes gnang) | bcu gcig zhal dpal mo lugs lha lnga’i rje gnang | dpal mo lug gyis bcuig (bcu gcig) zhal mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) lnga bskar rje gnang | ’phags pa spyan ras gzig don yod
14. ’zhags pa lha lnga’i rje gnang | ’phag pa spyan ras gzigs yige (yi ge) drug pa gtso ’khor gsuṃ pa’i rje gnang | bcoṃdns (bcom ldan ’das) tshe dpag med gzi brjid rgyal pos mtshan
15. brgya tsa brgyad pa las gral pa’i rje gnang | ras chung rdoe (rdo rje grags pa) nas rgyud pa’i tshe dpag med 1s gcig gi {rjeng (rjes gnang)} ’buṃ gcig gi rjeng (rjes gnang) | ma 1 grub pa’i rgyal mo
16. nas ’rgyud pa’i tshe dpaged (dpag med) gsang sgrub rjeng (rjes gnang) | grub rgyal ma nas rgyud tshe dpaged (dpag med) sprul sku dkar po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | dpal sa skya’i gser chos bcu gsuṃ nang mtshan tshe dpaged (dpag med)
17. dkar po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | tshe dpag med sgra mi stan pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’chi med rdoe (rdo rje) lha mo gtsug lags rjeng (rjes gnang) | {1}tshe dpag med ’chi med dpal ’ter ring rgyud grub chen thang thong
18. rgyal pos tsa ris zil chen gsang phug nas gter nas spyan drangs pa =yi= ma =ug kyi rjeng (rjes gnang) | tshe sgrubs ’chi med dpal gser =e rgyud pa’i rigs^in (rigs ’dzin) chos rje gli[ng]
19. pas bka’ gter bdag gnang su gsung pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol dkar yid bzhin ’khor lo mthun mong ma yin pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol dkar tshe sbyin ’khor lo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol
20. dkar tshe sbyin yidni (yid bzhin?) ’khor lo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol dkar gter rgyud yid bzhin ’khor lo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol dkar tshe ’phel ’khor lo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgrol ljang gtso ’khor nyiu (nyi shu) tsa gcig
21. pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | dbyangs can dkar mo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | dbyang can ma dmar mo kyang sgrub rjeng (rjes gnang) | sgra dbyangs lha mo dbyang can ma dkar mo’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | sher phyin dbyang
22. can dmar mo gsang sgrub rjeng (rjes gnang) | bo dong lugs kyi dbyangs can dmar mo gsang sgrub lha lnga’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | paṇḍi ta dhā na shri nas rgyud pa’i mi g.yo pa dkar po’i
23. rjeng (rjes gnang) | phag dkar sheb (shes rab) gsal byed rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’jaṃ dbyangs dkar po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’jaṃ dbyangs smra pa’i sengge rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’jaṃ dbyang a ra pa tsa ser po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’jaṃ dbyang gang
24. lugs ma bya rgyud rang skang lugis (lugs kyi) rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’jaṃ dbyangs sheb (shes rab) ’khoor’i (’khor lo’i) rjeng (rjes gnang) | ’phags ma ri khrod ma lo ma gyon ma’i buṃ sgrub dang bcas pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | rdoe (rdo rje) rnaṃs ’joṃ pa’i rjeng (rjes gnang) |
25. mi dra ba lug gnyis | gtsug gtor rnaṃr (rnam par) rgyal ma lha dgu’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) ’byung po ’gu la byed rjeng (rjes gnang) | phyag na rdoe (rdo rje) gos sngon can kyang sgrub rjeng (rjes gnang) | ma
26. ri mo tsa pa nas rgyud pa’i mkhro’ (mkha’ ’gro) sengge gdong pa can gyi rjeng (rjes gnang) | phyag rdor go[s] sngon can dang rgyalen (rgyal chen) rnaṃs sras rta bdag brgyad pa sbag sgrub rjeng (rjes gnang) | yees (ye shes) mgoon (mgon po)

27. dkar po phyag drug pa yidni (yid bzhin) nor bu’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | brjeu^n (brje btsun) rig byed ma ku rū kulle’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | lha chen tshogs kyi bdag po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | khroo (khro bo) ’dod po’i rgyal po’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | {bya} dpal
28. kye rdoe (rdo rje) nas bris dkyior (dkyil ’khor) du gyi dbang yong rdzogs | mgoon (mgon po) khro bcu’i rjeng (rjes gnang) | brjeu^n (brje btsun) bdag med ma lha gu’i dbang chen gur gyi mgoon (mgon po) lta brgyang rjeng (rjes gnang) |
29. dpaldn (dpal ldan) dmag zoe rgyal mo rjeng (rjes gnang) | smas mgon bzhal bzhi pa’i dbang chen dur bdag yab yuṃ gnyis kyi rjeng (rjes gnang) | nā ro mkha’ spyod ma dmar mo’i
30. dbang chen | dpaldn (dpal ldan) shang pa bka’ rgyud pas gter chos rta mgrin gsang sgrub dbang | bcoṃdns (bcom ldan ’das) rdoe (rdo rje) phur ba lha lnga bcu tsa gcig gi stod la ’byang chub sgrubs
31. pa’i dbang dang | smad lam dgra ’gegs sgrol ba’i dbang bzhi rim pa rnaṃs dang | ’dinyid (’di nyid?) kyi bka’ bsrung dkar bdud lcaṃ bral phur ba drung bcu’is bcas kyi rjeng (rjes gnang) | ngan
32. song sbyong brgyud nas gsung pa’i bsmoṃns (bsmon lam nas?) kun rigs rnaṃr (rnam par) snang mdzad lha gsuṃ bcu tsa bdun gyi dbang chen | ’phags pa tshe dang yees (yes shes) dpagtued (dpag tu med pa) lha dgu’i
33. dbang chen mchog drug bcu tsa gnyis dbang chen | dges rtor rgyud las gsung ba laṃ zab blaṃ’i (bla ma’i)sbyor dang bcas pa’i rgyud lung man ngag rgyab chos dang bcas pa rnaṃ nges bar thob pa’i byed ’thor rnaṃs pa
34. sogs ’byung tshe go sla khyer bde dran gso’i ph------yir tu dpal sa skya ba ngag dbang drag shugs ’phris yi ge mthu stobs dbang phyug bkra shis sgrag pa rgyal mtshan dpal
35. bzang pos ‘dad sdan slobs ma snaṃs la dge bskul bya phyir sams skyi chos sgra chen mo nas sprad |

This document is one of a handful in the two archives that concern the religious activities of the tshognam lamas. on lines 4 to 6 we are told that the aim is “to draw up a clear memorandum (byed tho < brjed tho) of all the vajrayāna initiations and teachings...without exception received by tenpai gyaltsen”—that is, the son of Ösal Dorje. the text therefore belongs to the category known as thob yig or gsan yig, a list of spiritual teachings received by a religious figure. for the following remarks on the document i am indebted to my colleague franz-Karl ehrhard, who sent me his observations in a personal communication dated 28 september 2014.
    Near the beginning and end (lines 2, 34) the document names the teacher: the sa skya throne-holder Drag shul ’Phrin las rin chen (1871–1935). the life story of this figure is contained in a two-volume biography (rDo rje ’chang); he is also known as the author of the Sa skya gdung rabs yang skong (Drag shul). He appears together with his court in a photograph taken in sa skya in 1934 (see Jackson 2003: 35).
    The document features an eclectic range of teachings based on a hevajra initiation, encompassing sa skya pa, shangs pa bKa’ brgyud pa and rnying ma pa traditions. in the case of the latter, there is the mention of a cycle of rig ’dzin chos rje gling pa (1682–1725) as delivered to the “master of the teachings” (chos bdag) of this treasure. the individual “authorisations” (rjes gnang) are ordered in the sequence of deities, beginning with hevajra and Bhurkuṃkūṭa (Khro mo sme ba brtsegs pa) and ending with mahākāla. towards the end (line 28) there is a second transmission, ending with the guru-yoga of hevajra. the transmissions were evidently received at sa skya chos grwa chen mo (line 35); an examination of the teacher’s biography may provide further information about the dates when these teachings were given.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 43

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 44

Date: Wood monkey year, 2nd month, 7th day, Wednesday (1884)

Lines: 9

Script: ’khyug ma tshugs

Specification of land tax due on fields in tshug used by Phurba angmo and her son.

1. § shing spre zla pa gnyis pa’i tshes 7 re gza’ lhag pa la / tshug lung pa’i sa ’phral
2. ’ji ’du a ma bu tsha gnyis tho yig / tshug lung pa’i sa ru bod khal dang zo ba mu
3. kha phyags pa’i snga yin / bde la lung pa nang bzhin gi phral gang phog phur pa
4. ang smis bu tshams zla nas mi sbyang zer sa med / lung pa nas mi len
5. zer sa med / mi len mi sbyang zer na su gal nas gor kha Zrgyal po la dngul lngab
6. brgya mdangs / yul pa’i dpon po la dngul brgya spul snyus zhus pa tshugs rgan pa
7. tshi ris sri thar gtsos mdzad yul pa spyi yi snyu sgu lags bskor yi rtags the se (seal) XXX / bde’i
8. phyid du ’phyar spang / tshug steng mi naṃ mkha’ / gu ru bkra shis / zla ba bsaṃ grubs / kun
9. dga’ bstan ’dzin mdangs mi ngo bzhi bzhugs / yig bris bu tshe ring nor bus yin /

1. sa khral 2. byed dus? a ma; kha chags pas lnga; de la khral gang ’phog 4. bu tsha da nas 5. su ’gal; dngul lnga 6. brgya dang; ’phul nus 7. smyu gu lag skor gyi rtags the tshe 7–8. de’i ched du cha dpang 9. dang mi


Wednesday, the 7th day of the 2nd month in a Wood monkey year (1884). When the land taxes for the community of tshug were being formulated (? ’ji ’du < byed dus?), the mother [Phurpa angmo] and her son [nyagdo?], were listed [as having to pay] 1 bod khal and 5 zo ba less one handful (mu < nep. muṭhi) for the land they have in tshug. on that matter, from now on Phurba angmo and her son may not say they will not pay whatever taxes are imposed on them as is the case with the community, and the community may not say that it will not receive them. Whichever party transgresses this agreement by saying that they will [on the one had] not receive the payment or, [on the other,] not make it, shall pay 500 rupees to the gorkha King and 100 rupees to the chiefs of the community; they have said that they can do this. led by their headman tshering hrithar, the people of tshug place marks with a bamboo pen to confirm that the document has been passed from hand to hand, and place a seal. the witness- es to this are the following four people of tengma in tshug: namkha, guru trashi, Dawa samdrub and Kunga tenzin. the scribe was tshering norbu.

HMA/UTshognam/Tib/ 45